The best way to ensure you make sales from Amazon is to write about things that people are actively looking to purchase, or about something someone might find interesting and be persuaded about purchasing (for example: someone looking to learn about the civil war through an article you’d written could be likely to purchase civil war related products through an Amazon sales cap somewhere in your article).
It depends on the story, size, and features of the affiliate business articles. Usually, stitch up the affiliate links at the reasonable epic points within the article text that audiences find the best actionable moment to click through there. In my long observation on the wealthy affiliate sites, got the places best for affiliate link insertion for better CTR are:
We start with a Bestselling course. Theo McArthur has been working online since 1995 (yes that’s before many of you were even born) and comes with over 20 years of online business experience. Having taught 10,000+ students, you can be rest assured you are in the right hands. A pre requirement for this course will be having knowledge of setting up a wordpress website(or any other platform). This course will then help you maximize income potential by promoting multiple products withing your niche / niches and most importantly help you drive a lot of relevant targeted traffic from some of the best sources on the internet.
It can be time-consuming to find product images to use when promoting Amazon, the same thing goes for adding links. With EasyAzon I can add images, links, product info boxes and more by the click of a button directly from my own site. Super simple and it saves time and helps maximize earnings. If you monetize with Amazon take a look at EasyAzon here.
To visualize this, think about an employee at a department store. They get paid hourly, but they also get commissions when they make sales (depending on where they work). Ever notice how when you walk into a department store employees begin hovering around you? This is because they’re waiting for you to ask for help, so they can help you complete a purchase and make a commission. This “commission” is the core essence of affiliate marketing.
The Program Operator may also terminate this agreement at any time, and for any reason, by writing to affiliate at the email address listed in the affiliate’s Profile, with 30 days notice. the Program Operator may transfer this agreement to any party whatsoever, at any time, and this agreement shall remain in full force and effect, without notice to affiliate. However, if this agreement should terminate for cause due to violation of this agreement or the Terms and Conditions, this agreement shall terminate immediately and affiliate shall forfeit all right to any commissions then due.
Sleep deprivation not only affects millions of people around the world, but also affects the society and the economy. If the society, employers, and the general public show greater concern for this condition, it is possible to bring back productivity and also have everyone getting their full 8 hours of sleep every night.A better understanding can be achieved with the following infographic: https://sleepsherpa.com/sleep-deprivation-effects/

We will evaluate your application in good faith and will notify you of your acceptance or rejection in a timely manner. We may reject your application if we determine (in our sole discretion) that your website is not suitable for the Affiliate Program for any reason, including, but not limited to, its inclusion of content that is, in our opinion, unlawful or otherwise violates our Acceptable Use Policy.
You hereby agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless, us, our shareholders, officers, directors, employees, agents, affiliates, successors and assigns from and against any and all claims, losses, liabilities, damages, costs and expenses (including attorney's fees and costs) of any nature whatsoever incurred or suffered ("Losses") in so far as such Losses or actions with respect thereto are based on: (i) the breach of this Agreement and/or any additional instruction of ours by you and/or any representation or warranty made by you; (ii) any claim related to your site.
Companies online will give you a commission if you refer a customer to them. An easy example would be with Amazon. Amazon has an affiliate program called Amazon Associates. It’s free to join and takes just a couple minutes to set up. From there you can search every product that is on Amazon and get your personal referral link. Let’s say your friend mentioned they wanted a new TV. You could send them your referral link for a TV on Amazon. Your friend buys the TV for $500, and Amazon gives you 6% of that sale. That means you made $30 without doing anything. Pretty cool, huh?
I want to help you get started in affiliate marketing and I want to do it for free. If you sign up for this affiliate marketing e-course, by next week, you will have a rock solid affiliate marketing business model, a full website blueprint, and a roadmap for how to achieve success in this industry. From there, the rest is up to you. At the very least, I can help you lay the foundation and get started.
You can sign up as an Amazon associate straight away without a site. As long as you have the URL and it belongs to you. They won’t approve your site until you have made your first commission. So what I would do is get the site built and add all the content that you need. Make sure its finished. Then sign up to the Amazon associates, add in your aff codes to your review pages and then you just wait for your first sale. Make sure you read the amazon T&Cs so your site is compliant. If it isn’t then they will not approve your site.
Building on last year’s inaugural edition of The Awin Report, the first, global definitive guide to the industry, this new and updated version for 2018 provides a fresh take on the market as it stands. Utilizing data and insights tracked across our 15 different markets, over 100,000 affiliate partners and 13,000 brands worldwide, this amounts to an invaluable guide for the modern marketer on affiliate marketing’s DNA.
This famous course by Lisa Irby is special for a reason. Most attendees are full of praises and in quick 4 hours you get to learn all you need to do get started in the world of affiliate marketing. Not specific to Amazon, this training will help you learn the tricks to do affiliate marketing for multiple websites, thus increasing your chances of diversifying and building a larger funnel. Lisa is a full time Internet entrepreneur and has taught thousands of people online about website creation and marketing. With this course, you are in real safe hands to get started with affiliate marketing.
Nowhere is that truer than in the online business world. Right now, it is happening with Amazon announcing a March 1st site-wide rollout of commission structure change for their affiliates (they have officially announced this change here). The way the commission structure used to work was that affiliates earned a percentage on a sliding scale based on the volume of products they sell, capping at 8.5% as the highest tier.
Now this one’s a perfect fit for the beginners. Starting right from understanding how Amazon Affiliation works to developing a complete website to even ranking your keywords on the first page of Google, this course will help you do it all. This training is not just for quick success, but will help you understand how to build long term income. It is well worth your investment specially when you are right about to start your internet marketing journey.
The United States controls the export of products and information. Each affiliate agrees to comply with such restrictions and to not export or re-export the materials (including software) to countries or persons prohibited under the export control laws. By becoming an affiliate, you are agreeing that you are not in a country where such export is prohibited or are not a person or entity to which export is prohibited. You are responsible for compliance with the laws of your local jurisdiction with regard to the import, export, or re-export of the materials (including software).
Hi I’ve tried to make money on Amazon. Had a great looking website but had no hits or anything in two months and when I called them to see why I’m not getting any hits they said to me do you have a domain name and I said no you guys never told me I needed one. So I closed my site and never tried again. I’m thinking of trying again maybe I might do it this time
Smaller and newer e-commerce businesses often find this practice especially appealing (although Amazon.com uses it, too). Unlike pay-per-click advertising, which charges merchants every time someone clicks on a link to their site, affiliate marketing costs nothing unless there is a sale — at which point a commission, typically between 4 and 20 percent, is paid. It has become an essential part of the online marketing toolbox, generating fees that Forrester Research projects will reach $3.4 billion next year.
I read blogs of you 17 little known affiliate programs , Can you explain one thing to me how a newbie can join this programs , The companies ask plenty of questions before joining . I don,t have a experience yet i am also a newbie or beginner in this field so what should i do to clear all those questions and get approved with mid to high level affiliate programs . I hope you Read this mail & clear this things to me in simple words .
(u) You will not directly or indirectly purchase any Product(s) or take a Bounty Event action through Special Links, whether for your use or for the use of any other person or entity, and you will not permit, request or encourage any of your friends, relatives, employees, contractors, or business relations to directly or indirectly purchase any Product(s) or take a Bounty Event action through Special Links, whether for their use, your use or the use of any other person or entity. Further, you will not purchase any Product(s) through Special Links or take a Bounty Event action for resale or commercial use (of any kind) or offer any Products on your Site for resale or commercial use of any kind.
For purposes of this Agreement, the Technology means the electronic access to programs, content and documentation, and Company's end user license agreement as it may be modified by Company for use in the Territory. The relationship between the corporate user and Company and/or its Affiliates shall be as specified in the applicable Company end user license agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, as between Company and MA, MA shall be responsible as defined for providing customer and technical support to end users in the Territory. MA will notify Company immediately in the event that it is unable to respond effectively to any end users’ requests.
5.1 We make no express or implied warranties or representations with respect to our Affiliate program or any products or items sole through such program (including without limitation, warranties of fitness, merchantability, non-infringement, or any implied warranties arising out of a course of performance or trade usage). We make no representation or warranty that the operation of the Sites or any of them will be interrupted or error-free and will not be liable for the consequences interruptions or errors.
Are they biting the hand that feeds them? Possibly. We will have to wait and see. Maybe Amazon gave the higher commission %’s to the products that have the highest markup…? i.e. their Amazon coins. I do believe tho they have reduced the incentive their own “affiliate employees” previously had to push their products-and maybe, just maybe this new commission structure will not last long.
Smaller and newer e-commerce businesses often find this practice especially appealing (although Amazon.com uses it, too). Unlike pay-per-click advertising, which charges merchants every time someone clicks on a link to their site, affiliate marketing costs nothing unless there is a sale — at which point a commission, typically between 4 and 20 percent, is paid. It has become an essential part of the online marketing toolbox, generating fees that Forrester Research projects will reach $3.4 billion next year.
Most successful affiliate marketers, however, do not have a large number of funds available so they tend to develop a website and use their website as the main advertising source for their business. Starting a website is very cheap (or even free), you don’t need to know any computer code, and it will attract FREE visitors that can be turned into paying customers relatively easily. This is the affiliate marketing business model that most people start with.
Wonderful post. Thanks for sharing the insights. Would you mind throwing some light on not your product itself but the competition your product had prior to you entering. For example – I sell essential oil in the geated beauty category and since the competition is so fierce, I’m struggling to make organic sales. Indeed, sales and reviews seem to be the mantra for AMZ algo. I’m currently trending at 31 reviews and should hit the 50 review mark in 2 weeks hopefully. I’m truly hoping things start to change then.

File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.


Hey Tom, thanks for this tutorial – it’s a good thing to get a tutorial like this from a trusted person like you and not from the thousands of (sometimes) confusing articles about passive income/affiliate marketing/clickfunnels and what not that I come across from time to time, I am making a living as a web designer and I have been thinking of pivoting from design and creative work to focus on passive income but didn’t know where to start. This is the perfect foundation article I have seen so far and I ‘d like to ask if you have any further reading/guides/videos on affiliate marketing that you’d recommend. I like to do my deep research before starting :) One more thing, there are some broken or missing images in this article, it could be my browser but check from your side too because there are quite a few images (e.g your Mercedes) that are missing. Thanks
The good news about selling Amazon affiliate sites is that buyers still consider them an excellent investment opportunity. From a buyer’s standpoint, not much is likely to change. The sites are still very hands off and require little to very slight management on their part to run. If anything, they will be getting a slight “discount” on these Amazon affiliate sites since the sites themselves will still be attracting the same amount of traffic that they can use to split-test new offers once they acquire the sites.
Effects of Expiration/Termination.  Expiration of this Agreement, and termination of this Agreement: (i) without cause by us,(ii) by you with cause, (iii) by you according to the ‘Termination for Agreement Changes’ section, shall not affect our obligation to pay you a Commission, so long as the related payment by the Customer Transaction is recognized by us within thirty (30) days after the date of such termination or expiration and provided that in no event shall you be entitled to payment of Commission under this Agreement if you are eligible to receive a revenue share payment under the Sales Solution Program Agreement, Sales Referral Program Agreement or Agency Partner Program Agreement. We will not pay you fees on Customer Transactions recognized by us after thirty (30) days after the date of such termination or expiration set out above.  Provided however, in the event of termination without cause by you, or for cause by us, our obligation to pay and your right to receive any Commission will terminate upon the date of such termination, regardless of whether you would have otherwise been eligible to receive Commission prior to the date of termination. Except as expressly set forth in this section, you are not eligible to receive a Commission payment after expiration or termination of this Agreement. Upon termination or expiration, you will discontinue all use of and delete the Affiliate Tool that we make available to you for your participation in the Affiliate Program. Upon termination or expiration, an Affiliate Lead is not considered valid, and we may choose to maintain it in our database and engage with such a prospect.
Any products you choose should also have acceptable prices and be available to purchase most of the time. Some products aren’t sold by Amazon, but through sellers only. These can sometimes have higher markups than the product sold elsewhere, which can be a turn-off for your audience. Items sold by sellers might run out of inventory fast, too, so look for products that don’t appear to have a history of this issue.

Acceptance and Validity. You will only be eligible for a Commission payment for any Customer Transactions that derived from Affiliate Leads generated by the Affiliate Link that we make available to you and are accepted by HubSpot. An Affiliate Lead will be considered valid and accepted if, in our reasonable determination: (i) it is a new potential customer of ours, and (ii) is not, at the time of submission or sixty (60) days prior, one of our pre-existing customers, or involved in our active sales process. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we may choose not to accept an Affiliate Lead in our reasonable discretion. If an Affiliate Lead does not purchase the Subscription Service within the time period described on the Program Policies Page) of their first click on the Affiliate Link, you will not be eligible for a Commission payment, even if the Affiliate Lead decides to purchase after the time period has expired.  An Affiliate Lead is not considered valid if it’s first click on the Affiliate Link is after this Agreement has expired or terminated. Engagement with Prospects.  Once we have received the Affiliate Lead information, we may elect to engage with the prospect directly, regardless of whether or not the Affiliate Lead is valid. If an Affiliate Lead is not valid then we may choose to maintain it in our database and we may choose to engage with such Affiliate Lead. Any engagement between HubSpot and an Affiliate Lead will be at HubSpot’s discretion.
Email is a relationship-builder with your potential customers. You want to send them a balance of useful information related to your niche, perhaps an email newsletter, as well as marketing messages, like a sales email, asking them to buy a product on sale. The free information you’ve provided helps them come to know, like, and trust you… which makes it more likely they’ll buy a product.

Great post , I do read a lot of the Nichehacks articles and this one is so true. At the moment I am in a niche I'm passionate about and yes although I am primarily using Amazon to monetize my site, I will be branching out to use other methods very soon. It frightens me to think the plug can be pulled at any time! I intent to use other affiliate programs as well as Amazon, maybe Google Adsense, I'm not sure yet, some digital products and also to build an email list.


Amendment; No Waiver. We may update and change any part or all of this Agreement, including by replacing it in its entirety. If we update or change this Agreement, the updated Agreement will be made available to you via the Affiliate Tool and we will let you know by email. The updated Agreement will become effective and binding on the next business day after we have notified you. When we change this Agreement, the "Last Modified" date above will be updated to reflect the date of the most recent version. We encourage you to review this Agreement periodically.  If you don’t agree to the update, change or replacement, you can choose to terminate as we describe above. No delay in exercising any right or remedy or failure to object will be a waiver of such right or remedy or any other right or remedy. A waiver on one occasion will not be a waiver of any right or remedy on any future occasion.

The more people you are able to help, the more money you will make in return. It really is that simple. Sure, many other “guru’s” out there will tell you about ways to make money on auto-pilot using super-secret systems or software programs that do all the work for you. But unless you are truly providing value to other people, you will never make a good living long-term in affiliate marketing.

Without doubt that was by far the best summary of “Greatest Tips” I have read to date. It is so confusing out there…I want to help my son who struggles with cranky bossy managers to empowering him and havening him live life on his terms. I know affiliate marketing is the way out but where to start?? Do we set up on Shopify and offer other people’s products? Do we set up a blog with a few good links? Do you go to clickbank and peddle the China trinkets etc? Its a tough one to sort but this tutorial was an easy to understand read and you have my word that any of the hosting or other services offered I will use your affiliate link to thank you for sharing your knowledge and your mistakes. Sincerest thanks Tom!
A great point you made there though. Too many people try to take on too much at once and end up spreading themselves too thin – trying to conquer all the niches at the same time. Marketers also do this with advertising. Instead of sticking with one platform until they are generating a consistent number of leads they will jump from platform to platform, in essence chucking a load of crap at a wall and seeing what sticks.
The affiliate marketing industry is somewhat unique in the transparency of many of its members. There’s a general willingness to share experiences, including both successes and failures. Below are some of the most in-depth and useful interviews and tutorials put together by affiliate marketers who put in the hard work to build up a profitable affiliate operation (in some cases, more than once):
“What we realized,” Mr. Teare said, “is that these customers were already on our site and prepared to buy, but at checkout they were Googling to see if any coupons were available. Because these new affiliates were advertising that they had special coupons for our store, customers were immediately clicking over there. The only problem is we didn’t have any coupon promotions running at the time.”
Most successful affiliate marketers, however, do not have a large number of funds available so they tend to develop a website and use their website as the main advertising source for their business. Starting a website is very cheap (or even free), you don’t need to know any computer code, and it will attract FREE visitors that can be turned into paying customers relatively easily. This is the affiliate marketing business model that most people start with.

g) Any cause of action or claim you may have with respect to the website, the products, the services, or the eBook(s), must be commenced within ninety (90) days after the claim or cause of action arises or such claim or cause of action is barred.  The Program Operator ‘s failure to insist upon or enforce strict performance of any provision of this agreement shall not be construed as a waiver of any provision or right. Neither the course of conduct between the parties nor trade practice shall act to modify any provision of this agreement. the Program Operator may assign its rights and duties under this agreement to any party at any time without notice to you. Use of headings in this document is for convenience only and does not identify legal boundaries or terms explicitly.
If you’re primarily going to be promoting Amazon products it’s important to choose a set of products that has a relatively high price point. After all, it’s hard to make a solid income off of promoting $1-5 products, since the commission on Amazon is so low. Items that have a higher price point, like high end appliances, furniture, BBQs, blenders and juicers, or bikes can net you over $50 a sale at least.
With a little bit of creativity, this business model can be molded into any business. It can be used as a personal moneymaker, as a legitimate company, or even as a supplement for a company already adopting a different business model. As we enter a new era of virtual reality, crypto-currencies, and whatever crazy new tech that comes out think about how you can implement the affiliate marketing model into future businesses. Wake up; we are in a gold rush.

No Resale Limitations. Unless otherwise stated in this Agreement, Company shall not require that MA be limited to the persons or accounts to which it may market, distribute or sublicense any product or service that MA sells or desires to sell, including without limitation, the Technology, within the Territory as defined in Schedule A of this Agreement.
(b) The Local Associates Products will be made available for Amazon customers to purchase through a specific page on Amazon.com assigned to each Local Associate (such page, the “Recommendations Page”). The Recommendations Page will include either a general Amazon.com search bar or a selection of Local Associates Products curated by you. Amazon reserves the right to modify the Products included in the Local Associates Products on any Recommendations Page. You must direct all Local Associates Program marketing to the Recommendations Page to be eligible for Qualified Purchases.
All things considered, you could realistically see prices going up across the board for all items, unless some sellers deem they can partially eat the cost of tax hikes to maintain a competitive price edge in their particular space. Then there is Walmart going after Amazon’s ecommerce space market share, including and especially their Prime market. That also will affect the value of Amazon FBA businesses, just as Amazon’s rise affected to value of eBay businesses in many sectors.
First, you can use Facebook Advertising and link directly to Amazon using your affiliate link. What you need to do here is find something that has extremely high demand, such as halloween costumes in October or the most popular kids toy during the Christmas season. Don’t just choose anything, go with something you KNOW is in demand. Then, you need to be very highly targeted in your advertising. With Facebook ads, you can target very specifically including by profession, age, sex, religion, whether they have kids or pets, own or rent, are in a relationship, etc. Narrow down as much as you can and target your ad to that specific group.

This literally changed my life… I moved out of my parent’s house (sigh) into a nice studio in downtown Denver, bought my first car (a Mercedes c300), adopted 2 kitties, and my credit raised 45 points. I also donated $3,000 to Red Cross at Hurricane Harvey. I’m a humble dude but in affiliate marketing, the numbers do the talking. So… I want to show you how I did it :)
If an affiliate site is using SEO as its primary traffic getting method, then affiliate sites can become very appealing to a Lifestyle Larry. Outside of doing some link management and making sure the offers are still valid, there isn’t a whole lot of work to be done unless the new owner wishes to grow the site. If they are content with living off the residual income though, there isn’t a lot of day to day management that they are going to have to do.
When you’re picking a domain name you’ll want to choose an authoritative domain, that doesn’t limit the potential of your website. For instance, topoutdoorgrillreviews.com might sound like a good choice, but then you’re limited to just writing about outdoor grills. Something like theultimatebackyard.com will allow you to expand your site into different niches as your site becomes more established.
In addition to all of this, you don’t really have a store to look after. You have zero products to ship or be held responsible for. You are literally just the marketing arm, unlike the ecommerce business model where you are sourcing the products that you are selling and dealing with the customer service portions of the business, along with logistics. 

Know English, can earn. All you need to know is how to know to write for this one (or how to hire a writer). It is your holistic guide to creating a white hat (Google Friendly) affiliate sites that draw organic (free) traffic from Google Search and convert that into paying customers on Amazon via your content marketing website. 17.5 hours of unadulterated video content, lifetime access and even a certificate of completion. At a rating of 4.8 out of 5, it is a no brainer when it comes to deciding whether this is good or bad for you. Created by SEO Academy Leaders in SEO Education, this will get your Amazon Affiliate website SEO on the right track.
Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[35] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.

i. You will use Product Advertising Content only in a lawful manner in accordance with and within the express scope of the terms of this License. You will not use PA API, Data Feeds, or Product Advertising Content with any site or application, or in any other manner, that does not have the principal purpose of advertising and marketing an Amazon Site and driving sales of products and services on an Amazon Site.

Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[31] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[32] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[33] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[34]

Most of the traffic for your affiliate website will come from product related searches, and product reviews. Generally, these will be more long-tail terms such as, “Blendtec 570 vs Vitamix 5300”, or “greenworks mower vs black and decker”. The traffic coming from keywords like these will be very targeted, as the searcher has the intention to purchase something.

A purchase by a Referred Customer engaging in "Domain Speculation," which is determined by the identification of two (2) web hosting accounts with the same Referred Customer's name, email address, or other identifying characteristic as determined by FatCow and/or the identification of two (2) or more web hosting accounts that have no content on their websites or have similar content, templates or formatting, as determined by FatCow, in our sole discretion.
Keep in mind though that the rest of the tutorial is only available once you sign up for FREE which does not cost you anything at all but only requires you to input your email address. If you do not want to disclose your email address then I suppose don’t worry about it as I am sure there are more resources you can find online. I just thought I’d mention it because I had read it myself and it is a valuable information that one person can learn from. Just like many of us, he also started out as a newbie testing the waters of affiliate marketing at some point in time then he eventually found his success and he now have a repeatable business model that he is sharing with us.
I went from making $20k in 2016 to $100k in 2017 by dropping my web design/SEO clients and doing affiliate marketing/blogging full-time. 90% of my (passive) affiliate income comes from SiteGround, a hosting company who awarded me affiliate of the month in July, 2017 when I made $9k in 1 month. Since then I’ve continued to hit numbers like this – the screenshot below is from March, 2018 when I made $14.5k in 1 month (just with SiteGround). 

With the global market creating opportunities for affiliate marketers, Nele Sharp from CJ Affiliate by Conversant touched on a number of ways publishers could capitalise on their global presence - such as identifying local consumers and finding relevant advertisers to work with while also doing your research on the location/region you’re targeting, including any laws or privacy disclosures.
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