5. If you are familiar with Internet marketing at all you know that what worked three months ago may not work today. Stay on top of the trends. Seek knowledge, start by learning something new about affiliate marketing daily. For example remember those marketing tools called "banner" that use to drive sales at an astronomical rate a few years ago? Well those banners developed a term called "banner blindness." That means most online viewers will not click on banners even if they do pertain to what they are looking for. To be a "super" affiliate you must always spend time reading, learning, and embracing the changes in Internet marketing. 6. Don't Give Up It's hard to do, and most of the time those dabbling in affiliate marketing give up way too soon. Monitor your statistics, watch to see what is working and what is not. Make changes when necessary. Do one thing daily to promote your storehouse and be patient. Before you know it you will start getting payments. Remember that it will not happen overnight. Encompass and develop the persistence, patience, and knowledge. Then follow the tactics I've mentioned above and you are on your way to becoming a "super" affiliate. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 5
“Subscription Service” means our web-based sales software that is subscribed to, and developed, operated, and maintained by us, accessible via http://www.hubspot.com or another designated URL, and add-on products to our sales software. For the purposes of this Agreement, the Subscription Service does not include our legacy sales products, any implementation, customization, training, consulting, additional support or other professional services, or fees for third-party products or services.

If the website isn’t an authority in its niche, ask yourself if it is setup to be one. You should always have this in mind, but especially with affiliate sites. Since affiliate sites have such a low barrier to entry, by buying an authority site, you are significantly putting yourself ahead of your competition who will be entering the game without an authority site. This will help you keep market share and dominate the niche.

Thanks to your article, my anxiety and panic about getting started have vanished to a great extent. Coincidentally, this has come around the time when I had just purchased a PLR to WordPress tutorial which also came with an upsell that contained a course on Amazon promotion among others. I now also plan to purchase your course discussed here to that I can start setting my foot into the physical products affiliate marketing world.
For Dan Henry, the salient dream of living life and succeeding by marketing products or services as an affiliate wasn't just alive, it was lucid. Still, dream as he might, in 2011 Henry was still just a college dropout delivering pizzas door-to-door just to make a living. However, compelled by a nascent desire to live according to own terms, he knew that there was more to life than existing paycheck-to-paycheck.
Unless otherwise stated in an Offer Addendum, we will pay you referral fees on a monthly basis. Approximately thirty (30) days following the end of each month, we (or our designee, InfusionSoft) will send you a check for the referral fees earned on Qualifying Product revenues for that month, less any returns and canceled orders. However, if the referral fees payable to you for any month are less than $25.00, we will hold those referral fees until the total amount due is at least $25.00 or (if earlier) until this Agreement is terminated.

You are the sole and exclusive owner of the Affiliate Trademarks and have the power to grant to FatCow the license to use such marks in the manner contemplated herein, and such grant will not (i) breach, conflict with, or constitute a default under any agreement or other instrument applicable to you or binding upon your assets or properties, or (ii) infringe upon any trademark, trade name, service mark, copyright, or other proprietary right of any third person or entity.


Don’t set a goal to write 3 blog posts a day… set a goal to write 1 blog post a week and make that post super helpful, long, and filled with information that is so valuable you will say “yeah, people will link to that.” 90% of my traffic/affiliate income comes from just 20 tutorials, many of which are 5+ years old. But I am constantly updating them to make the content better.


It’s also important to remember that your content should be actionable. For example, if you’re writing a review for a coffee machine, it’s not enough to talk about its features and how great its brew is. You also should look to answer any questions your visitors might have about it, and explain how the product can benefit them. Focus on the positives, and how they can be valuable to the reader.

(a) For purposes of the Local Associates Program, “your Site”, as referenced in the Associates Program Operating Agreement, includes the Local Associates Facilities and any other location where you market Products to Amazon customers. For avoidance of doubt, if you use any Site (as defined in the Associates Program Operating Agreement) or other online presence to market Products to Amazon customers, that Site will be subject to all provisions of the Associates Program Operating Agreement as “your Site.”

An affiliate agreement can be created for any type of business, whether you are a corporation or sole proprietor. Creating an affiliation with a company or individual with a large customer base and a proven track record is a great way to promote your business. Always draft the agreement so that each company will understand their obligations and responsibilities to avoid future legal conflicts.
That ultimately means there is less growth ability. For example you can’t just go in and change a checkout process to split test which one will perform better. You only really control the front or what is also known as “top of” marketing funnel. This makes your options more limited than if you were running a full blown business where you sourced the product yourself and controlled the logistics and check out processes.
Yes that seems super strange with Best Buy’s affiliate program. I’m assuming it has to be an error. There are other big affiliate programs for electronics you might want to look into as well. For example New Egg offers 2.5% currently with their program, and I imagine they would convert better than Best Buy since their main customer base is online whereas Best Buy’s clientele is mainly offline retail customers.
Excellent written article, I only recently started delving into Amazon affiliate sales and have been following what you recommend with links in posts and reviews converting better. One question I had which you don’t show in a screen shot is how many sales are through product link clicks and how many are through “all other items ordered”. I am curious to know what # of sales are from products not directly listed, but just taking advantage of the Amazon cookie and getting percentage of those sales.

i. You will use Product Advertising Content only in a lawful manner in accordance with and within the express scope of the terms of this License. You will not use PA API, Data Feeds, or Product Advertising Content with any site or application, or in any other manner, that does not have the principal purpose of advertising and marketing an Amazon Site and driving sales of products and services on an Amazon Site.


If we reject your application, for any reason, you may not re-apply to the Affiliate Program utilizing the same domain name/URL or reapply using a different domain/URL name and then add the previously rejected domain name/URL to your affiliate account. FatCow, in its sole discretion, reserves the right to notify or to not notify any prospective affiliate of their rejection or removal from the Affiliate Program at any time.
We’ll be covering some of the nuances of affiliate marketing quite a bit on MonetizePros, sharing some ideas for better monetizing an existing traffic base with these strategies. But before we dive in to some of the specifics of this approach, we thought we’d share some of the best articles and blog posts out there on the topic to lay a foundation for the monetization tutorials. If you’re brand new to affiliate marketing, you may wish to read our primer: What Is Affiliate Marketing?
Setting up a website is easier than you think. I personally use Bluehost (you can use whoever you want) to set up all my websites because they have a 1-click button that sets up a WordPress website for you, if that’s scary, here is a detailed post on how to start a blog written for some friends. Let me know in the comments if you have any questions. We’re happy to help!
If there’s one product you sell a lot of and it’s something that can be private labeled you could make a lot more selling it on Amazon yourself (and you can still promote it as an affiliate too, gray area but people do it). For example, supplements are very easy to private label. I started out as an affiliate and now I sell my own private label products and make more than I ever could have as an affiliate.
Theme – you don’t need a special theme for affiliate marketing, you probably just need a blog. I recommend StudioPress themes since that’s what Yoast, Matt Cutts (from Google), and I use. Matt Mullenweg, founder of WordPress also recommends them. One of the biggest mistakes I made was using a theme from Themeforest… since they’re built by independent developers who may stop making updates to their theme. This happened to me and I hear horror stories all the time about people having to switch themes and redesign their entire site. I’ve been using the same StudioPress theme (Outreach Pro) for 3 years. Their themes are lightweight (load fast), SEO-friendly via optimized code, secure, and they have a huge selection of plugins for the Genesis Framework and an awesome community in the Genesis WordPress Facebook Group. They include documentation for setting it up and will serve you for many, many years.

g) Any cause of action or claim you may have with respect to the website, the products, the services, or the eBook(s), must be commenced within ninety (90) days after the claim or cause of action arises or such claim or cause of action is barred.  The Program Operator ‘s failure to insist upon or enforce strict performance of any provision of this agreement shall not be construed as a waiver of any provision or right. Neither the course of conduct between the parties nor trade practice shall act to modify any provision of this agreement. the Program Operator may assign its rights and duties under this agreement to any party at any time without notice to you. Use of headings in this document is for convenience only and does not identify legal boundaries or terms explicitly.


In addition to all of this, you don’t really have a store to look after. You have zero products to ship or be held responsible for. You are literally just the marketing arm, unlike the ecommerce business model where you are sourcing the products that you are selling and dealing with the customer service portions of the business, along with logistics.

Companies online will give you a commission if you refer a customer to them. An easy example would be with Amazon. Amazon has an affiliate program called Amazon Associates. It’s free to join and takes just a couple minutes to set up. From there you can search every product that is on Amazon and get your personal referral link. Let’s say your friend mentioned they wanted a new TV. You could send them your referral link for a TV on Amazon. Your friend buys the TV for $500, and Amazon gives you 6% of that sale. That means you made $30 without doing anything. Pretty cool, huh?
Affiliate Contracts. Except for employment agreements and except as specifically identified on Schedule 5.14, there does not exist any contract, agreement or other arrangement between Seller and (a) any affiliate of Seller, (b) any entity in which Seller directly or indirectly owns more than a five percent (5%) interest or (c) any of the managers or members of Seller that will not be cancelled by Seller simultaneously with the Closing hereunder.
Thank you so much for a clear and concise breakdown of the Amazon Associate program. I’ve been ready (finally) to make the jump and have been working out my monetization strategies. This tutorial has not only helped me better understand how the program works, but has also given me some other – much simpler – ideas for other niche sites that I can get up and going very quickly! I appreciate your hard work and the effort you put into this. I look forward to reading more from you.
(a) Promotional Materials. Amazon may from time to time provide you with a standard form template and other marketing assets for use in promotional marketing materials (“Promotional Materials”), subject to the limited license in Section 4(b) of this policy. Amazon reserves the right to review your Promotional Materials at any time for compliance with this Local Associates Policy. Any failure by you to provide the Promotional Materials in accordance with our request will constitute a material breach of this Local Associates Policy.
That ultimately means there is less growth ability. For example you can’t just go in and change a checkout process to split test which one will perform better. You only really control the front or what is also known as “top of” marketing funnel. This makes your options more limited than if you were running a full blown business where you sourced the product yourself and controlled the logistics and check out processes.
Marketing Plan. MA shall submit an annual marketing plan to Company outlining, among other things, activities and staffing directed at attaining mutually agreed upon annual sales quotas. The Annual Quota is defined in Schedule A of this Agreement. The annual marketing plan shall be devised solely by MA and MA shall not be required to follow an operating plan, standard procedure, training manual, or its substantial equivalent, published by Company.
You are solely responsible for the development, operation, and maintenance of your Affiliate Site and for all materials that appear on your Affiliate Site. Such responsibilities include, but are not limited to, the technical operation of your Affiliate Site and all related equipment; creating and posting product reviews, descriptions, and references on your Affiliate Site and linking those descriptions to our website; the accuracy of materials posted on your Affiliate Site (including, but not limited to, all materials related to FatCow Products and Services); ensuring that materials posted on your Affiliate Site do not violate or infringe upon the rights of any third party and are not libelous or otherwise illegal. We disclaim all liability and responsibility for such matters
Affiliate Training and Support.  We may make available to you, without charge, various webinars and other resources made available as part of our Affiliate Program. If we make such resources available to you, you will encourage your sales representatives and/or other relevant personnel to participate in training and/or other certifications as we recommend and may make available to you from time-to-time. We may change or discontinue any or all parts of the Affiliate Program benefits or offerings at any time without notice.
Bad product picks could hurt your brand. Chances are good that if you’re including an affiliate link in your content, then you’re willing to put your full support behind the product. However, if the reputation of that product should sour with the public and you fail to catch it, that recommendation of an untrustworthy product could hurt your brand.
Affiliate Program Limits. Each accepted Affiliate Lead will expire according to the information provided on the Program Policies Page. from the date the Affiliate Lead clicked on the Affiliate Link that was made available by you. We will pay you Commission for each new Customer who completes a Customer Transaction after clicking on an Affiliate Lead made available by you, provided that you remain eligible to receive Commission pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.  The start of the Customer’s subscription is determined by the date of the first purchase of the Subscription Service by the Customer and you will receive a Commission payment for that Customer Transaction only, regardless of any additional purchases made by that customer during their Subscription Service. For example, if the initial Customer Transaction is for one user of Sales Hub Professional, and there is a subsequent transaction by that same customer for an additional user of Sales Hub Professional for the same subscription, Affiliate will receive Commission for the initial user purchased only. The Affiliate will not be entitled to receive Commission on any additional purchases of HubSpot Products by that same Customer
These are your basic pay-per-click affiliate marketing campaigns where you have no presence and no authority in the niche of the product you’re promoting. There’s no connection between you and the end consumer, and all you’re doing is putting an affiliate link in front of someone via Google Adwords, Facebook ads, etc. in the hopes that they’ll click on your link, buy the product, and earn a commission.
Amazon Associates is an affiliate marketing program run by Amazon which allows you to sell its products on your own website in exchange for a cut of the profits. This enables you to boost your product range, test new types of products on your audience or even build a full business around this and perhaps other affiliate programs. For small businesses that currently sell products online, this could represent a great source of added revenue, if you sell additional products through Amazon, without worrying about getting the products yourself. Amazon conducts the sales and ships them directly to the client.
Hey Chris – great post. Just a question – We have got about 80 stores affiliated to Amazon Associates. As I understand from your article, it appears that the blog site is a foundation for making a successful Amazon Income. In this regard, we don’t have a blog site but we just have those stores (websites) which have a show case of products. What do you think the strategy would be to drive sales? Of course, we have got Social Media Marketing currently in place.

2. Next, you are not building a list of buyers. You are basically giving away all your leads to the product owner who simply does nothing to get the traffic from you. All you get is a commission and that’s only if you actually make a sale. So once your supply of traffic runs out you are dead in the water. No more money for you :( Of course you can always send your traffic through a squeeze page before redirecting them to the vendor’s website and that’s what smart affiliates do. You should always build a list! But you are not using the number 1 secret to making money which is leverage. On the other hand the product owner has many more opportunities to make affiliate sales because all he has to do is redirect the traffic you sent him for free to other offers. The vendor can put affiliate links on his thank you pages, inside his ebook, send out promo emails to his list he built thanks to you, and the list goes on and on. See my point? So how can you do this if you are just starting out? The best and easiest way to do this is by creating low cost products. How hard would it be for you to create a nice 20-30 page report (you can so totally outsource that too!) and sell it for $7-$27 bucks? Then you can set up a 100% commission affiliate program and start recruiting affiliates to sell the product for you. You should probably add some kind of upsell into the funnel to make it worthwhile for affiliates to send traffic. If the only commission they get is a measly $7 bucks they might not even bother. You can add an upsell by simply making a video course out of your ebook you just created, or get some high quality PLR product and rebrand it with your name etc. Now all you have to do is concentrate on converting that traffic affiliates are sending you and make more money. You will need to create a good converting sales letter or sales video. I highly recommend outsourcing this part if you have no copywriting experience. When you are a vendor the best investment you can make is to hire a good copywriter instead of worrying about traffic. Affiliates will send you traffic so that’s out of the way. I hope you are getting the idea here. A product owner is nothing more than a super affiliate who uses leverage to sell other affiliate products on the backend. That’s how all the gurus do it in the internet marketing community. There is nothing wrong with being just an affiliate. You can make a lot of money with that too especially when you are building content sites and your traffic is free. Building Authority content sites is a huge business because your product is traffic at that point, but that’s a whole different topic. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 2
Chris, I am glad you have had good fortune with amazon, I think I have chosen the wrong niche, it appears to be very competitive, I have had my site for 4 mo, and have made zero, however, it may not be all bad, I still work on content, and I do get indexing, however, I am at a loss on how to find keywords on ranking content; If I could find this out, then I could do some seo on any LSI keywords. I do agree about having a nice looking website, I paid far much less then you did, and I think I turned out with a site that looks very nice; If visitors do not think you are legit, or if you content looks like trash, then the will bounce before you can blink. I think once I can find those magic LSI keywords and rank them, then I think things will turn around, as I have also invested quite a bit up until this point.
(c) Recommendations Page. We reserve all right, title and interest (including all intellectual property and proprietary rights) in and to, and you do not, by virtue of this Local Associates Policy or otherwise, acquire any ownership interest or rights in or to, the Recommendation Page, the Recommendation Page URL, or information and materials on the Recommendation Page. You will not take any action that conflicts with our rights in, or ownership of, the Recommendation Page. Amazon reserves all rights to determine the content, appearance, functionality, URL, and all other aspects of the Recommendation Page, including through the display of (i) advertising materials on the Recommendation Page, without compensation to any Local Associate, and (ii) disclosure (by text, link, icon, or otherwise) regarding your participation in this Local Associates Program.

Even before the rumors and now news, I was thinking about multiple revenue streams. Much of our income comes from downloadables and books my husband sells, so the idea of creating products myself is appealing. Also I sure had fun yesterday with a page I made from Zazzle products. I know the public is less likely to buy from non-Amazon spots but Zazzle has a LOT of attractive and creative stuff you can’t get anywhere else. And so the world turns…


From launching in an overseas market to accessing an elusive niche demographic, influencers play a key role in helping brands get in front of the right audiences at the right time. With consumers increasingly hard to reach with traditional ad spend – 615 million devices now use adblocking software – more and more affiliate marketers and brands are looking for a way to tie their advertising spend to tangible results and actions.
An example of this business would be to create a blog in a particular niche. Let’s say you’re an audiophile. You could create a headphone review blog. On this blog, you write articles on your favorite headphones and tell people where they can buy it on Amazon. You then place your referral link for those headphones in your article. When people read the article and decide to buy the headphones, you get paid. Simple right?
Just an FYI, it’s better to avoid phrases like “Get a great deal on Crest Whitestrips’ or any other qualifiers regarding the quality of the deal or price. You cannot guarantee that the deal is actually “great”, and Amazon is known to be picky about these things and treating them as misrepresentations of their brand / dishonest marketing. It’s best to keep calls to action neutral, things like “check price” or “see current price” etc.
"Confidential Information" Defined. “Confidential Information” includes: (a) the Technology (b) any personally identifiable data or information regarding any end user; (c) any and all information disclosed by Company to MA, in whatever format, that is either identified as or would reasonably be understood to be confidential and/or proprietary; (d) any notes, extracts, analyses or materials prepared by MA which are copies of or derivative works of Confidential Information or from which Confidential Information can be inferred or otherwise understood; and (e) the terms and conditions of this Agreement. “Confidential Information” does not include information received from Company that MA can clearly establish by written evidence: (x) is or becomes known to MA from a third party without an obligation to maintain its confidentiality; (y) is or becomes generally known to the public through no act or omission of MA; or (z) is independently developed by MA without the use of Confidential Information.
Limitation of Liability. IF, NOTWITHSTANDING THE OTHER TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, WE ARE DETERMINED TO HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY, THE PARTIES AGREE THAT OUR AGGREGATE LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO THE TOTAL COMMISSION AMOUNTS YOU HAVE ACTUALLY EARNED FOR THE RELATED CUSTOMER TRANSACTIONS IN THE TWELVE MONTH PERIOD PRECEDING THE EVENT GIVING RISE TO A CLAIM.
Affiliate marketing can be incredibly lucrative with just one website and a bit of content. This is different than the Amazon affiliate model, which often takes several sites to create a great income with their sliding tier of commissions. In addition, there is an incredible variety of products to promote and sell. Almost every business has an affiliate program of some kind, you just scroll down to the bottom of their site and their affiliate program will be hyperlinked right next to their Contact Us link.
Amazon has already made similar adjustments in many overseas markets. In 2015, the company moved its European affiliate program to a category-based structure, and according to the affiliate management firm GeniusLink, the result was more of a subtle chill than a freeze-out. “There’s definitely some pain as a result of it,” says GeniusLink CEO Jesse Lakes, “but we haven’t had a single client who stopped doing business because of the new payout structure.”
My conversion rate went from 2.5% to 8% just by including Facebook polls where SiteGround was rated #1 (here’s last year’s poll) plus Twitter screenshots and Facebook conversations. Whether it’s Amazon reviews or social proof, you NEED to include outside opinions. You can also use WP Rich Snippets to allow people to leave a review about the product/service on your site and get those review stars in Google (you will want to use their front end submit add-on).
This site holds no stock whatsoever. They are just promoting amazon products by ranking high for keyword terms around scooters “best pro scooter” “best scooters for kids”. People are searching for these terms in their thousands every month. They click on his amazon links, purchase products on amazon and then the owner of myproscooter.com will get commission on the whole basket.
[Sender.Company] is a proven leader in affiliate marketing. We have a track record of optimizing our clients’ current affiliate platform to help them realize an average increase in clicks, conversions, revenue, and average order value. Our affiliate strategy is tailored for each client depending on the goals set forth by the client and include a combination of publisher recruitment and commission optimization.
Longtime affiliate marketer and co-founder of Shareist Scott Jangro suspects that Gawker Media’s Amazon widgets are custom-built. “It looks like they’ve built a system allowing them to capture data that gives them full-circle reporting on what’s getting bought, through which page, and possibly even by user,” he told me. “Showing a count of purchased products for social proof is just one of the many things they can do with this data.”
As a smart merchant, the first step towards business growth is to integrate a streamlined affiliate marketing program that frees your time and saves on business expenses. Finding affordable advertising online can be like walking through a maze. With a plethora of advertising options available, you can easily get distracted and lose your advertising dollars. Conversely, traditional online-advertising methods only offer one-time efforts. Learn More
If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates, it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly if a contact method can be located.
I agree, but right now more than ever is a time smaller affiliate program owners can scoop in some serious Amazon players. Amazon will likely remain the leader in physical products, but that doesn’t mean other affiliate programs can’t replace the Associate’s program. In some cases, a few people have acquired sites, replaced the AMZ links with other programs and found huge increases.
2.7 All intellectual property rights comprised in any of Our Materials, Our Marks, the services provided by us, the Sites are all owned by Giv & Take Profit and you shall have no rights, interests, claims and/or demands in and/or to the same. Any use of any trade mark or trade name that contains, is confusingly similar to or is comprised of Our Marks without our express prior written consent shall be unauthorized. Without derogating from the generality of the afore-going, you shall not register or use or attempt to register or use any of Our Marks in part of any domain name and/or any trade marks or names which contain, are confusingly similar to or are comprised of Our Marks. You agree not to attack the ownership of and title to Our Marks in any way.
If at any time there has been no substantial activity on your account for at least 3 years, then we will have the right, with 7 days’ written notice to withhold the accrued fees for your inactive account, up to a maximum closure withholding of an amount equal to the minimum amount listed in the Payment Minimum Chart for payment by gift card. Further, any unpaid accrued fees in your account may be subject to escheatment under applicable law.
If you have any kind of special deals with your affiliate manager, make sure that you can pass these along. If you can’t, then you need to take that portion out of the business and sell as if you weren’t getting those extra benefits. One of the best ways to transfer these kind of special perks is by also making sure that your affiliate manager becomes the manager for the new buyer as well when they sign up for that network. Most affiliate managers work on a commission basis from the sales that their affiliates are doing, so they will likely be more than happy to do this since your website is already a proven profit maker for them.
Then, came the dreaded Google algorithm updates. After ranking number one for "electronic cigarettes" and "electronic cigarette reviews," which were steadily driving massive amounts of traffic to his blog, his rankings fell off of a cliff. He tells me had made a huge mistake by solely relying on Google for traffic and not leveraging it to build an audience elsewhere.
Before I share the strategies that I’ve used to generate over $100,000 in affiliate commissions per month at this point, there are two extremely important rules I use when promoting products that are not my own. You don’t have to use these rules in order to become an affiliate or be successful at it, but it’s what has helped me grow my affiliate income tremendously over the last couple of years:

SEO – I have a full guide on Youtube SEO. You’ll basically want to research a video keyword in YouTube’s Autocomplete dropdown, then craft your video title/description to include your keyword. Write a long description and embed it on your blog to get more views. Create a nice custom thumbnail and make your videos long and thorough, just like your blog posts should be.
Note from Justin & Joe: We will be repricing ALL of the Amazon Associates sites on our marketplace to reflect this change. Our methodology for this will include using the seller’s earning report from Amazon. We have created a formula using historical sales that adjusts the commission percentage based on the new rates that Amazon has rolled out. These rates are adjusted in every category and accurately updated with the historical earning amounts. Since every item is in a different commission category, we will take every category that the website is selling in into account for the new adjusted valuation price.
Product review sites are another popular vehicle for affiliate marketing strategies. Because these sites are inherently focused on providing information about products in which visitors are likely interested, the affiliate tie-in is pretty straightforward. The author writes about a product, highlighting the features and addressing any concerns, and then includes a link where readers can go to purchase the product.
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