In addition to the obligations set forth in Section 4 (FTC Endorsement Compliance), Affiliate shall comply with all applicable data protection laws regarding the transmission of data exported to or from the United States or the country in which Affiliate resides, including without limitation, the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 of European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 (the “GDPR”). Affiliate, as a controller under the GDPR, shall also implement appropriate technical measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk, taking into account the nature, scope, context, and purpose of processing any personal data. Affiliate agrees to promptly assist FatCow in complying with any data subject rights request under the GDPR that FatCow may receive from any individuals referred to FatCow by Affiliate. Affiliate further agrees to promptly assist FatCow in complying with any duties to cooperate with supervisory authorities under the GDPR.

Right now, it’s time for Amazon Associates to take a serious look at their niche website and see what they can do to ensure continued revenue. However, as we’ve seen, all is not lost. In fact, for some this may be a time of great opportunity! By taking advantage of the methods provided above, you can stabilize or even increase your income from you niche website.
One of the talking points in 2017 was Apple’s Intelligent Tracking Prevention feature for its Safari browser through its IOS 11 update - which meant first-party cookies that previously remained would expire within 24 hours while deleting a site’s cookies entirely if the user doesn’t visit the site for 30 days. This feature sparked controversy in the digital marketing space with comments from the IAB, Webgains and Tradetracker on the impact it had on tracking users’ behaviour.
The easiest way to find affiliate programs to promote is to check if the people selling products and services you love have an affiliate program – assuming those products and services would be relevant to the visitors to your blog or website. There are also multiple ways to find new quality products or services to promote to your audience based on their interests. You'll find more information on how to do this here.
To become an Affiliate, You need to submit a completed Affiliate Application in which You shall provide true and complete information to Us. You shall also promptly update all such information if all or any part thereof changes and shall provide Us with all such other information as we may reasonably request from time to time. We will evaluate your Affiliate Application and, where applicable, notify you of our acceptance. We may reject your Affiliate Application in the event we determine in the exercise of our absolute discretion that your site is not suitable for our Affiliation program for any reason.
The Program Operator reserves the right to reject any affiliate application if, in the Program Operator’s opinion, that person or entity violates established laws or commonly held standards of decency. For example, we will reject applications from any person or company that promotes any form of violence, illegal activities, or from applicants who the Program Operator prefers not to be associated with.
Company will undertake all reasonable efforts to provide technical assistance to MA under this Agreement when MA is unable to resolve certain technical issues and to rectify or provide solutions to problems where the Technology does not function as described in the Technology documentation, but Company does not guarantee that the problems will be solved or that any item will be error-free. This product support commitment is only applicable to Company’s Technology running under the certified environments specified in the release notes of the end user licensing agreement for that Technology or Package. Company may from time to time, however, discontinue Technology or versions and stop supporting Technology or versions one year after discontinuance, or otherwise discontinue any support service. Company is not liable for incidental, special or consequential damages for any reason (including loss of data or other business or property damage), even if foreseeable or if MA or Customer has advised of such a claim. Company's liability shall not exceed the fees that MA has paid under this Agreement. MA agrees that the pricing for the services would be substantially higher but for these limitations.
Hi Art, we have the disclosure on the footer of virtually every page, but you can do things like make a link to Amazon on phrases such as “Crest Whitestrips” or even “Get a great deal on Crest Whitestrips” – This article is a good read where Sara asked Amazon to clarify these exact questions: http://marketingwithsara.com/amazon/warning-to-all-affiliate-marketers
15.1. You agree that you are an independent contractor, and nothing in this Agreement will create any partnership, joint venture, agency, franchise, sales representative, or employment relationship between you and Merchant.com. You will have no authority to make or accept any offers or representations on our behalf. You will not make any statement, whether on Your Site or any other of Your Site or otherwise, that reasonably would contradict anything in this Section.
Note from Justin & Joe: We will be repricing ALL of the Amazon Associates sites on our marketplace to reflect this change. Our methodology for this will include using the seller’s earning report from Amazon. We have created a formula using historical sales that adjusts the commission percentage based on the new rates that Amazon has rolled out. These rates are adjusted in every category and accurately updated with the historical earning amounts. Since every item is in a different commission category, we will take every category that the website is selling in into account for the new adjusted valuation price.
HubSpot’s Proprietary Rights.  No license to any software is granted by this Agreement. The HubSpot Products are protected by intellectual property laws. The HubSpot Products belong to and are the property of us or our licensors (if any). We retain all ownership rights in the HubSpot Products. You agree not to copy, rent, lease, sell, distribute, or create derivative works based on the HubSpot Content, or the HubSpot Products in whole or in part, by any means, except as expressly authorized in writing by us. HubSpot, the Sprocket Design, the HubSpot logos, and other marks that we use from time to time are our trademarks and you may not use them without our prior written permission, except as otherwise set forth in this Agreement.
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.
My conversion rate went from 2.5% to 8% just by including Facebook polls where SiteGround was rated #1 (here’s last year’s poll) plus Twitter screenshots and Facebook conversations. Whether it’s Amazon reviews or social proof, you NEED to include outside opinions. You can also use WP Rich Snippets to allow people to leave a review about the product/service on your site and get those review stars in Google (you will want to use their front end submit add-on).

Great article. Thanks for writing it. I am right now picking my theme and building my wordpress. I have my hosting and domain name. What I don’t get though from the article is whether you have to apply to Amazon to be an affiliate or if they accept everyone. How does that all work? Like if I build my site and post links to amazon’s products, they wouldn’t have my details to pay me my commission. Do the templates do all that for you automatically? I am finding it hard to choose one because I want one that automatically integrates the amazon products without making my blog look like a shop per se. I’m going to have a look on the amazon site to see if there’s any clues there. But I thought that was the finishing and crucial touch, which forgive me, seems missing from your well explained and detailed article.

Start a new Facebook group in niche area and start recruiting people through paid advertising on Facebook to “like” your page. Paying Facebook for followers can be extremely cheap. I grew my Facebook following on DogFoodInsider.com to 25,000 followers at under 1 cent per like. The trick is, you have to be super targeted. My ad for DogFoodInsider.com simply said this…
However, be aware that you need to submit an application to most of these networks to be accepted. Once you're accepted in, you're often required to apply directly to the merchant afterwards. So there are two layers or gates that you need to bypass. That's also why it's important to build up your platform and create that emotional bridge between yourself and your audience before attempting to promote anything to them.
Amazon runs one of the largest affiliate programs around, called Amazon Associates. You can become part of the program as long as your website already has some content (about five or ten posts). Bear in mind that once you’ve applied, it can take a few days to be approved. Once your account is ready, you can start to focus on building an effective website.

Hey Sue, I can’t disclose the amount of money that the website was earning when I sold it, but as I admitted at the onset of the article my income from Amazon would have surpassed $100,000 had I not sold the site. I already have several other authority style websites I’m building up as well as my network of smaller niche sites that earn good money as well.
Choose products carefully. Don't promote something you wouldn't buy or don't like just to make money. It will backfire and cause you to lose credibility with your website visitors. People are more likely to buy products you personally recommend. If you don't have experience with the product, be sure to check out reviews to see what other people's experience with it is.

Analytics are limited. Unlike with conversions made directly on your WordPress site, you’ll be limited in terms of what you can learn about the people making purchases through your affiliate links. While Amazon does provide you with details about clicks and sales, you won’t get deep insights into who the consumer was and what they did on your site before they got to that point that you would with Google Analytics.
The Amazon affiliate program has a 24-hour cookie, which means that once users click on an affiliate link to Amazon, anything they buy in the next 24 hours is commissionable to the affiliate whose link they last clicked. So if you click on Gawker’s affiliate link to Amazon to look at cable ties and end up buying another, unrelated product, Gawker Media still receives a commission for that sale.
It’s time to mix and match. Instead of switching your entire blog over to luxury beauty products, mix in an occasional affiliate link. Perhaps write comparison articles that pit luxury beauty products against normal beauty products. Try to compare different makeup, face creams, hair styling tools, etc. Or, talk about the best products in different price categories. What is the best budget hair straightener, and what is the best luxury hair straightener?
Also probably worth noting that if you are thinking about signing up for the Amazon affiliate program and are located in Colorado or New York, sign up with an out of state business address. Amazon closed their programs to affiliates in these states because of tax laws that were passed. There are quite a few services that allow you to choose a business address in a different state and will automatically forward your mail to your current address.

2.7 All intellectual property rights comprised in any of Our Materials, Our Marks, the services provided by us, the Sites are all owned by Giv & Take Profit and you shall have no rights, interests, claims and/or demands in and/or to the same. Any use of any trade mark or trade name that contains, is confusingly similar to or is comprised of Our Marks without our express prior written consent shall be unauthorized. Without derogating from the generality of the afore-going, you shall not register or use or attempt to register or use any of Our Marks in part of any domain name and/or any trade marks or names which contain, are confusingly similar to or are comprised of Our Marks. You agree not to attack the ownership of and title to Our Marks in any way.


The best way to ensure that content publishers have everything they need to promote your company and begin to generate sales is to set up a live data feed to your affiliate network. In doing this, content publishers will be able to see the products that you offer along with the prices of those products and will use that information to promote your company and drive visitors to your website. Because content publishers promote your products rather than discounts, we will push out higher commission rates than we will for coupon publishers.
The progress of any affiliate benefits the Program Operator in many ways. If You recruit, sponsor, or obtain an affiliate through the websites, by any means, You should always be willing to assist such affiliate at no charge to such affiliate. If you are unwilling to assist such affiliates without charge, your affiliate status with the Program Operator will be terminated immediately and any commissions due will be withheld permanently as partial compensation for managing the associated and impacted affiliates.

8.2. Affiliates that among other keywords or exclusively bid in their Pay-Per-Click campaigns on keywords such as merchant.com, merchant, www.merchant, www.merchant.com, and/or any misspellings or similar alterations of these – be it separately or in combination with other keywords – and do not direct the traffic from such campaigns to their own website prior to re-directing it to ours, will be considered trademark violators, and will be banned from Merchant’s Affiliate Program. We will do everything possible to contact the affiliate prior to the ban. However, we reserve the right to expel any trademark violator from our affiliate program without prior notice, and on the first occurrence of such PPC bidding behavior.

Amazon operates a volume-based advertising fee structure. The more products that are shipped as a result of your affiliate links, the more you'll make per sale. Once you have sold enough products to move up to a different advertising rate, all subsequent sales will give you commission at that rate, until and unless you reach the next fee level. Note that some products are exempt from this commission structure.
2.2. As a member of Merchant.com's Affiliate Program, you will have access to Affiliate Account Manager. Here you will be able to review our Program’s details and previously-published affiliate newsletters, download HTML code (that provides for links to web pages within the Merchant.com web site) and banner creatives, browse and get tracking codes for our coupons and deals. In order for us to accurately keep track of all guest visits from your site to ours, you must use the HTML code that we provide for each banner, text link, or other affiliate link we provide you with.
AFFILIATE PROGRAM AGREEMENT This Affiliate Program Agreement (the "Agreement") is made and effective the [DATE] BETWEEN: [YOUR COMPANY NAME] (the "Owner"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the [State/Province] of [STATE/PROVINCE], with its head office located at: [YOUR COMPLETE ADDRESS] AND: [RECIPIENT NAME] (the "Recipient"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the [State/Province] of [STATE/PROVINCE], with its head office located at: [COMPLETE ADDRESS] In consideration of the terms and covenants of this agreement, and other valuable consideration, the parties agree

I have been using LongTailPro for more than a year and have just started using the cloud version. It’s very fast and easy to use! Since I have been using LongTailPro, I have saved a lot of money not having to build that many links. Most of the keywords revealed by LongTailPro rank without building links. There are lots of very well written tutorials and videos that guide you. The training is all white hat! It’s helped me a lot with my SEO business. Keep up the good work guys!
3.2. Merchant.com reserves the right to terminate this Agreement and your participation in the Merchant.com Affiliate Program immediately and without notice to you should you commit fraud in your use of the Merchant.com Affiliate Program or should you abuse this program in any way. If such fraud or abuse is detected, Merchant.com shall not be liable to you for any commissions for such fraudulent sales.
Chris, I am glad you have had good fortune with amazon, I think I have chosen the wrong niche, it appears to be very competitive, I have had my site for 4 mo, and have made zero, however, it may not be all bad, I still work on content, and I do get indexing, however, I am at a loss on how to find keywords on ranking content; If I could find this out, then I could do some seo on any LSI keywords. I do agree about having a nice looking website, I paid far much less then you did, and I think I turned out with a site that looks very nice; If visitors do not think you are legit, or if you content looks like trash, then the will bounce before you can blink. I think once I can find those magic LSI keywords and rank them, then I think things will turn around, as I have also invested quite a bit up until this point.
Yes, this is the main part of this write up that how to organize an epic hybrid affiliate article with converting headlines, inviting introduction, engaging body and satisfying conclusion of an affiliate article. Here is the key field to be fertile it’s land with appropriate techniques by affiliates or hired professionals who research, form, polish and set up the content to generate higher revenue earning affiliate articles:

If you are going to write a piece of content that has an affiliate link to a high-end DSLR camera, you need to be an expert in order to make it credible. Your whole website needs to revolve around the product and how to use it, rather than eyeing up the fat commission you can make if you dupe someone into using your link from that one piece of content.

(d) You will not use any Program Content, including any name or likeness embodied in that Program Content, in a manner that implies a person’s or company’s endorsement or sponsorship of, or commercial tie-in or other association with, any product, service, party, or cause (including by placing unrelated third party materials in close proximity to Program Content).


During each calendar month, you may earn advertising fees for Qualifying Purchases. Most advertising fees are calculated as a percentage of Qualifying Revenues based on the tables below and are subject to the limitations described in the “Limitations on Advertising Fee Rates for Certain Products” section below. We also may offer advertising fees in the form of bounties or other special offers as described in the “Special Offers and Promotions” section below. “Qualifying Revenues” mean amounts we receive from customers’ Qualifying Purchases, excluding shipping, handling, and gift-wrapping fees, taxes, and service charges, and less any rebates, credit card processing fees, returns, and bad debt.
Payment for Services, Training and Support. Services, training and support, when applicable and provided by Company, shall be paid for by MA according to agreed upon terms, and a monthly billing report will be created for MA by Company to show utilization of time and charges. A LATE PAYMENT CHARGE of one and one-half percent (1 ½%) or the maximum rate permitted by applicable law, whichever is less, of the outstanding balance due to Company per month will be imposed on all overdue accounts.
If you’re writing reviews, you should 100% be using rich snippets (they add review stars to your search engine snippets and increase click-through rates). There are many WordPress plugins for this but my favorite is WP Rich Snippets. It’s $69/year (or $399 one-time) and I use it for every single review I write. They have tons of add-ons, settings, styling options, and looks nice. Free plugins like All In One Schema.org do work but lack settings, styling, and flexibility.
If you know how to complete keyword research with Long Tail Pro and look up products on Amazon, you can start to unearth what affiliate site niche is potentially the most profitable one for you. A little research of Amazon’s best sellers and the most reviewed products in your niche can go a long way. Then, take some tips from successful Amazon affiliate sites to make your site go the distance in terms of popularity and profitability.
a) If any part of this agreement or the Terms and Condition is declared void, this agreement and the Terms and Conditions shall, to the maximum practicable extent, be construed without reference to that part. No term or provision of the Agreement shall be waived unless in writing and signed by the party waiving the provision, and any waiver shall apply only to the specific event or situation which it describes and shall not be continuing. No affiliate may assign or sublicense this agreement without the Program Operator’s prior written consent.
These are your basic pay-per-click affiliate marketing campaigns where you have no presence and no authority in the niche of the product you’re promoting. There’s no connection between you and the end consumer, and all you’re doing is putting an affiliate link in front of someone via Google Adwords, Facebook ads, etc. in the hopes that they’ll click on your link, buy the product, and earn a commission.

The people that you refer too did not master amazon, they merely mastered the value they offer to visitors. If you are able to engage/connect with visitors, then you got a winner, some people merely have better skills then others, which may include offering high value content, coding/custom skills. Do you agree that these people brought something to the table? If they did not, then visitors would not continue to visit their sites, right? You can put up all the content in the world, you can get all the backlinks you want, but if you can not engage/connect with your visitors, then all is lost. These site most likely did not start off with custom sites; they started off just like everyone else, some rag/tag site. I ran across an affiliate site a few months ago, and the content on his site would just blow your mind, and let me tell you,this guy had affiliate links from all major affiliate networks, his site has so much authority that he is listed right up under amazon, and some actual product manufacturers; how did he do this? He brought solutions, and value to his visitors, he knew what they were looking for, and knows how to engage, and connect with them. If you can not figure out how to blow your visitors mind, then what do you really have to offer? His avg reviews were between 7k-10k words? how about you? 500-1000 words? at the end of the day, which site will google find more impressive, yours, or his, and i assure you, he had far more affiliate links on his site then you have on yours as you could not skip-a-paragraph without seeing affiliate links.
From launching in an overseas market to accessing an elusive niche demographic, influencers play a key role in helping brands get in front of the right audiences at the right time. With consumers increasingly hard to reach with traditional ad spend – 615 million devices now use adblocking software – more and more affiliate marketers and brands are looking for a way to tie their advertising spend to tangible results and actions. 

2.10 All data relating to players (including New Players) shall, as between you and us, remain our exclusive property and you shall have no rights, interests, claims and/or demands in and/or to the same. You shall not contact nor correspond with any players (including New Players) without our express prior written approval. In the event that we are of the opinion that try to or do make contact with any player (including a New Player) in breach of the foregoing, we shall be entitled in addition to our other rights and remedies, to terminate this Agreement with immediate effect and to indefinitely withhold commissions due to you at such time. In the event we have given express written consent for you to contact or correspond with a player, we are entitled to withdraw the same at any time if we deem it to be against our best interests and to terminate this Agreement with immediate effect and to indefinitely withhold all commission due to you at such time.
You hereby agree to indemnify and hold harmless Merchant.com, and its subsidiaries and affiliates, and their directors, officers, employees, agents, shareholders, partners, members, and other owners, against any and all claims, actions, demands, liabilities, losses, damages, judgments, settlements, costs, and expenses (including reasonable attorneys' fees) (any or all of the foregoing hereinafter referred to as "Losses") insofar as such Losses (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based on (i) any claim that our use of the affiliate trademarks infringes on any trademark, trade name, service mark, copyright, license, intellectual property, or other proprietary right of any third party, (ii) any misrepresentation of a representation or warranty or breach of a covenant and agreement made by you herein, or (iii) any claim related to your site, including, without limitation, content therein not attributable to us.
Love this post! I agree that if you understand your audience's preference, you can customize the content for them. If you’re still sending mass emails without updating your strategies, you'd noticed that results are disappointing, despite your efforts. Thank you for sharing this post, these tips are game changers, I bet these would help a lot. A must read! https://bit.ly/2S3IdYQ
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
By making premium quality content free, you enable it to spread across the Internet. One of the truly enabling factors of the Internet is it allows a message to travel to millions of people with very little friction. When you make your content free, it enables search, social and sharing to grow your audience without the traditional requirement of marketing.

There are many ways in which you can make money with WordPress. Creating a website for the purposes of promoting a business or selling goods through an online store is one such way. Monetizing a blog with display ads is another. While there are other ways in which you can use your WordPress site to make money, perhaps one of the easiest ones to get started with is affiliate marketing.
4.4. You acknowledge that your entitlement to any compensation reported with respect to any tracked or reported activity is solely a function of the terms of your agreement with BTI and that BTI is solely responsible for its payment. The fact that a compensation amount is reported for any tracked activity does not necessarily mean that a payment is due to you from BTI, since payment may be subject to conditions established by BTI, including policies regarding order cancellation, returned merchandise, receipt of pending credit card authorizations and minimums for earned compensation before payment is made. All determinations of Qualifying Links and the compensation due to you shall be final and binding. 

How crazy your the first to write what I needed at the beginning of my blog research venture. Thus, this is exactly what I have been doing, and funny just the other day I was writing down my cost as I go along. I am new to the blogging community and just started in Jan 2018. I am now on step 10-11ish. The part I am trying to really work on is building an audience, and writing more content so I can bring more people to my site. It is hard work for sure. What was the name of your blog, that you created to do this? It is not the wallet squirrel is it, as that one seems like it has been around for a while.
Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.

Yet, like any other young adult, Henry struggled in life, unsure of where to go or what to do, embattled by bad habits that included a chronic addiction to cigarettes. He was the product of circumstances, but that didn't make him a victim. Like any other person looking to succeed, he knew some serious changes to his life were in order. And one of those changes was the necessity to quit smoking cigarettes, a habit he had come to abhor.

It’s easiest to make money using Amazon’s affiliate program if the people coming to your website are looking for a specific product that your website discusses. It’s more difficult to use a website like my blog here and make money linking to physical products because the people coming here are looking for advice on how to earn money online – not what iPod speakers they should buy.
Company will undertake all reasonable efforts to provide technical assistance to MA under this Agreement when MA is unable to resolve certain technical issues and to rectify or provide solutions to problems where the Technology does not function as described in the Technology documentation, but Company does not guarantee that the problems will be solved or that any item will be error-free. This product support commitment is only applicable to Company’s Technology running under the certified environments specified in the release notes of the end user licensing agreement for that Technology or Package. Company may from time to time, however, discontinue Technology or versions and stop supporting Technology or versions one year after discontinuance, or otherwise discontinue any support service. Company is not liable for incidental, special or consequential damages for any reason (including loss of data or other business or property damage), even if foreseeable or if MA or Customer has advised of such a claim. Company's liability shall not exceed the fees that MA has paid under this Agreement. MA agrees that the pricing for the services would be substantially higher but for these limitations.
Unless otherwise stated in an Offer Addendum, we will pay you referral fees on a monthly basis. Approximately thirty (30) days following the end of each month, we (or our designee, InfusionSoft) will send you a check for the referral fees earned on Qualifying Product revenues for that month, less any returns and canceled orders. However, if the referral fees payable to you for any month are less than $25.00, we will hold those referral fees until the total amount due is at least $25.00 or (if earlier) until this Agreement is terminated.
We will pay Standard Program Fees and Special Program Fees in the default currency for an Amazon Site approximately 60 days following the end of each calendar month in which they were earned by the method described below that you have selected. You may be permitted to elect to receive payment in a currency other than the default currency for an Amazon Site. If you choose to do so, you agree that the conversion rate will be determined in accordance with Amazon’s operating standards.
I guess the only thing I’d say about this is if you are blogging in a competitive niche and working in what I’d call the “gray area” of link masking and not using “nofollow” as described here by google (https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/96569?hl=en) expect that competitors that are writing real reviews with real photos (not stuff grabbed from a manufacturers website) are going to report you to google as webspam. The thing I hate most is affiliate sites that have never held a product in their hand and then try to pass off something as a first person review for the sole sake of pushing you to Amazon.com.
Absolutely! It is easy enough in a sense that you can get started without a whole lot of initial investment but also what you need is persistence and determination. The way that it works is you find a product or services that you are comfortable to promote and when I say comfortable, I mean the ones that you can talk about all day and convince your customer to buy it.
First thing to pay attention to, once you decide to go ahead with “good” affiliate marketing, is the affiliate offers themselves. Affiliate offers can come and go. I mentioned above that there is more link management involved with affiliate marketing versus Amazon affiliate sites because of this. If your affiliate link is pointing towards an offer that an affiliate network is no longer offering, you’re missing out on all the commissions you could be earning.
Assignment. You will not assign or transfer this Agreement, including any assignment or transfer by reason of merger, reorganization, sale of all or substantially all of its assets, change of control or operation of law, without our prior written consent. We may assign this Agreement to any affiliate or in the event of merger, reorganization, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, change of control or operation of law.
×