It depends on the story, size, and features of the affiliate business articles. Usually, stitch up the affiliate links at the reasonable epic points within the article text that audiences find the best actionable moment to click through there. In my long observation on the wealthy affiliate sites, got the places best for affiliate link insertion for better CTR are:
I’m curious – how are Amazon affiliate sites faring after the Google Panda update. With the keyword density of the content articles needed for these types of sites, have you or any of your Niche Profits members experienced a major decline in traffic or rankings? If so, what are your recommendations for creating better backlinks and showing more authority/relevancy for these types of sites?
Very informative. I left a comment because I know what it is like to spend hours or even days writing a great blog to not even have someone leave a simple comment one way or the other. I started making only something like $3.00 a month with Amazon affiliate when I first started, what a joke! I was about to quit when I read your article and like one other and found out there was real money to be made. Now I am making a million dollars a year…just kidding, I couldn’t even type that sentence with a straight face. Seriously though I have boosted my earnings to a high of around $96 to an average of like $45 a month with still isn’t much, but much better than my adsense earnings. Well good day and thanks for the insights.
Sleep deprivation not only affects millions of people around the world, but also affects the society and the economy. If the society, employers, and the general public show greater concern for this condition, it is possible to bring back productivity and also have everyone getting their full 8 hours of sleep every night.A better understanding can be achieved with the following infographic: https://sleepsherpa.com/sleep-deprivation-effects/
I have never earned a penny on the internet but that is because I am looking for but have not yet found anything.  My problem is that although no knowledge or expertise is needed, so it is said, there are statements that I simply cannot understand.  For example, in No.4 above on making money in affiliate marketing, the statement goes "Build back links and get others to do it for us and rank in the search engines for various key words based on our market."
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[31] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[32] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[33] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[34]

Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[29]
Affiliate marketing also is a very broad term; under this umbrella there are several different strategies that can be employed to generate affiliate revenue. The most appropriate and lucrative method (or methods) can depend on a number of factors, including your site’s niche and characteristics of your audience. Below is an overview of some of the most popular affiliate marketing implementations, along with examples of each.
Then, came the dreaded Google algorithm updates. After ranking number one for "electronic cigarettes" and "electronic cigarette reviews," which were steadily driving massive amounts of traffic to his blog, his rankings fell off of a cliff. He tells me had made a huge mistake by solely relying on Google for traffic and not leveraging it to build an audience elsewhere.
The GDPR places strict limitations on how much marketers can personalize their ads. Facebook and Google have already introduced new policy changes to compliance. In March, Google announced that it will limit processing of any personal information about minors, as required under the GDPR Age of Consent requirements. They also released a new solution for publishers that only want to display ads that do not include personalized information on customers who didn’t consent to data collection for targeting. Facebook has stopped processing newsfeed posts for targeting ads, except when the ads are marked for the general public or friends of friends. The company made this change because those types of ads usually depend on demographic data that is included in the “special categories of data” provision under the GDPR.

Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.

Many new affiliate marketers like to use the Amazon Associates Affiliate Program as their first way to start earning a living online. This is actually a great choice! Amazon is trusted by almost everyone and most people you refer to Amazon will already have an account on Amazon. This lowers the barrier to a sale. Many affiliate marketers earn a full-time living just by using the Amazon Associates affiliate program, but it has to be done right. Here are some tips and tricks to earning substantial earnings using the Amazon Associates Program.
Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[31] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[32] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[33] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[34]
Affiliate marketing has a very low barrier to entry; many merchants accept everyone who applies for affiliation. Some forms of affiliate marketing don't even require the affiliate to have a website. This creates a very high level of competition, especially for particularly profitable offers. In forums where affiliates participate, there are frequent claims of commission theft or hijacking by other affiliates and even by merchants. A cookie system that credits the sale to the last link clicked makes these actions more likely.
I guess the only thing I’d say about this is if you are blogging in a competitive niche and working in what I’d call the “gray area” of link masking and not using “nofollow” as described here by google (https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/96569?hl=en) expect that competitors that are writing real reviews with real photos (not stuff grabbed from a manufacturers website) are going to report you to google as webspam. The thing I hate most is affiliate sites that have never held a product in their hand and then try to pass off something as a first person review for the sole sake of pushing you to Amazon.com.
For example, let’s say that we want to promote Drip as the better alternative to Infusionsoft… We would write up a comparative article that shows all of the reasons we like Drip better. We would then login to Google Adwords and create an ad campaign that links to our article and targets anyone who searches for “Infusionsoft” or “Infusionsoft Alternative.”
The Associates Program is free to join, and we provide resources on the Associates Site to help Associates succeed with the program. We have never authorized any business to provide paid set-up or consulting services to our associates, so please be wary if any business like that (even one attempting to appropriate the Amazon name) reaches out to offer you costly services. 

4. Easily Integrated – There are more and more plugins and tools that have Amazon Affiliate integration built into them to help you easily place links in your blog posts. I use ecto for Mac which has a tool that searches for products and links them in in just a couple of clicks. WP has plugins also. The affiliate links already mentioned in this post took seconds to integrate in.
Excellent article Chris! This will help me out a lot. I am a new author through amazon and my book is also being sold through KDP Select (The kindle option worldwide) but regardless of my advertising on my Facebook page, which cost money, I do not seem to be getting anywhere. With Amazon Associates, is it totally free and no cost to you or do you pay a fee over a certain amount of time. Also if you have any tips on how to get a book out there that would be excellent. My book is being sold at Books a Million, Barnes and Noble, and Alibris. I plan on doing a book signing at Barnes and Noble in hopes it will raise awareness of my book.

I doubt that every person who places one of those links on their blog actually uses each of those products and services. And that’s okay. Placing affiliate links on your site that are related to your niche is a decent strategy to earn extra income. Whether it’s in the sidebar in banner form, or in a text link at the bottom of your blog post, because you have a website and some authority, people will trust you and your decision to place the ad on your site.
Newbies and intermediate affiliate marketers tend to be too detail oriented. They spend countless hours testing new offers, creating content and looking for new traffic sources. More experienced marketers understand importance of looking at the bigger picture. They must observe trends to anticipate new changes, such as the types of offers that will be profitable in the future and which traffic sources will be most profitable in the future.
3. Anyway, if you want things to be easy you need to create a product of some kind with an affiliate program attached to it. If you offer converts well and your EPCs are high affiliates will drive all the traffic you can handle. They will spend money on PPC, media buys, doing SEO and all the stuff you are doing right now yourself. II. Affiliate marketingstrategies Affiliate marketing is a low-cost way for merchants to build awareness and showcase their products and services. The model is simple; it works as a commission-based referral system. A partner or affiliate markets a merchant's products for a "piece of the pie." Affiliate marketing experts often make an income that can tally over five figures per month, however only 1 to 5% of thousands of marketers achieve this level. When an affiliate reaches this elite level they are often referred to as a "super" affiliate. How does one become a super affiliate? Can anyone do it? Super affiliates have common tactics that they embrace and put into place. Anyone can become a super affiliate, but it will not come without blood, sweat, and a hefty time commitment. The typical super affiliate possesses the following traits:  Persistence  Patience  Thirst for Knowledge These three traits combined with the following strategy gives you the formula for the makings of a "super" affiliate. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 3 

Affiliate Contracts (i) Amend, modify or waive any material term or provision of any Affiliate Contract or any Third Party Contract as in effect on the Closing Date without the prior written consent of Required Lenders, (ii) enter into any new Affiliate Contract or Third Party Contract following the Closing Date, unless such contract is (a) substantially similar to the form of contracts entered into by Borrowers with the Affiliate Plants prior to the Closing Date and (b) promptly delivered to Agent or (iii) offer more favorable marketing fee arrangements under any Affiliate Contract than those marketing fee arrangements offered under any Third Party Contract.
Hey Sue, I can’t disclose the amount of money that the website was earning when I sold it, but as I admitted at the onset of the article my income from Amazon would have surpassed $100,000 had I not sold the site. I already have several other authority style websites I’m building up as well as my network of smaller niche sites that earn good money as well.
Option 2: Payment by Amazon Gift Card. We will send you gift cards in the amount of the fees you earn to the primary email address on your Associates account. These gift cards are redeemable for products on the Amazon Site the fees were earned on and are subject to our then-current gift card terms and conditions. If you select this option, we reserve the right to hold fees until the total amount due to reaches the minimum stated in the Payment Minimum Chart.
If at any time there has been no substantial activity on your account for at least 3 years, then we will have the right, with 7 days’ written notice to withhold the accrued fees for your inactive account, up to a maximum closure withholding of an amount equal to the minimum amount listed in the Payment Minimum Chart for payment by gift card. Further, any unpaid accrued fees in your account may be subject to escheatment under applicable law.
Absolutely. Affiliate marketing is a viable and legitimate way to monetize your blog or website. Tens of thousands of merchants run affiliate programs and will pay you a commission for sending them sales. However, there are some scams centered around affiliate marketing. You'll find information on how to spot affiliate scams – and avoid them – here.
2. Next, you are not building a list of buyers. You are basically giving away all your leads to the product owner who simply does nothing to get the traffic from you. All you get is a commission and that’s only if you actually make a sale. So once your supply of traffic runs out you are dead in the water. No more money for you :( Of course you can always send your traffic through a squeeze page before redirecting them to the vendor’s website and that’s what smart affiliates do. You should always build a list! But you are not using the number 1 secret to making money which is leverage. On the other hand the product owner has many more opportunities to make affiliate sales because all he has to do is redirect the traffic you sent him for free to other offers. The vendor can put affiliate links on his thank you pages, inside his ebook, send out promo emails to his list he built thanks to you, and the list goes on and on. See my point? So how can you do this if you are just starting out? The best and easiest way to do this is by creating low cost products. How hard would it be for you to create a nice 20-30 page report (you can so totally outsource that too!) and sell it for $7-$27 bucks? Then you can set up a 100% commission affiliate program and start recruiting affiliates to sell the product for you. You should probably add some kind of upsell into the funnel to make it worthwhile for affiliates to send traffic. If the only commission they get is a measly $7 bucks they might not even bother. You can add an upsell by simply making a video course out of your ebook you just created, or get some high quality PLR product and rebrand it with your name etc. Now all you have to do is concentrate on converting that traffic affiliates are sending you and make more money. You will need to create a good converting sales letter or sales video. I highly recommend outsourcing this part if you have no copywriting experience. When you are a vendor the best investment you can make is to hire a good copywriter instead of worrying about traffic. Affiliates will send you traffic so that’s out of the way. I hope you are getting the idea here. A product owner is nothing more than a super affiliate who uses leverage to sell other affiliate products on the backend. That’s how all the gurus do it in the internet marketing community. There is nothing wrong with being just an affiliate. You can make a lot of money with that too especially when you are building content sites and your traffic is free. Building Authority content sites is a huge business because your product is traffic at that point, but that’s a whole different topic. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 2
Thanks a lot for those tips. I bought your course but found that the module for finding a niche cannot be easily applied for the following reasons: 1) domain (com, net, org) that match exact keywords are almost taken by someone else; 2) even if you can find an exact match keyword domain, changes are there are other competitors building similar niche review sites, simply adding good quality articles and build links with some social book marking do not seem to work well; 3) can you elaborate in details how to do the SEO for a specific niche using real exams (e.g., if you say social bookmarking, can you tell us how to find those sites or even provide a list of sites; if you use blog comments, can you walk thru the process to find good quality blog that accept comments with “do follow” etc
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[37] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[38]
While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same model in the West. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM.
Use of Links. If you qualify and agree to participate as an Affiliate, we will make a variety of graphic and textual links available to you (each referred to herein as a "Link" or collectively, as the "Links"). The Links will serve to identify your website as a member of the Affiliate Program and will establish a link from your website or e-mail to FatCow’s website. You agree to cooperate fully with us in order to establish and maintain such Links. You further agree that your use of the Links must be in compliance with this Agreement at all times. FatCow may modify the Links from time to time in its sole discretion. You will not use graphic or textual images (indicating a Link) or text messages to promote FatCow that are not approved in advance by FatCow. All Affiliate Sites shall display the Links prominently in relevant sections of their website. Furthermore, you agree not to use cookie stuffing techniques that set the affiliate tracking cookie without the Referred Customer's knowledge (e.g. iframe). Any information with respect to FatCow that is going to be displayed on the Affiliate Site must be preapproved by FatCow in writing.
And finally, I think you should always be open with your model. When you are recommending products to an audience and receiving a financial kick back, you need to maintain a position of trust by being transparent about how you earn revenue. Some members of your audience won’t want to click an affiliate link, even when you are completely open like this, but I believe having this level of integrity will serve you better over the long run.
(a) For purposes of the Local Associates Program, “your Site”, as referenced in the Associates Program Operating Agreement, includes the Local Associates Facilities and any other location where you market Products to Amazon customers. For avoidance of doubt, if you use any Site (as defined in the Associates Program Operating Agreement) or other online presence to market Products to Amazon customers, that Site will be subject to all provisions of the Associates Program Operating Agreement as “your Site.”
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[37] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[38]
Choose products carefully. Don't promote something you wouldn't buy or don't like just to make money. It will backfire and cause you to lose credibility with your website visitors. People are more likely to buy products you personally recommend. If you don't have experience with the product, be sure to check out reviews to see what other people's experience with it is.

Smart Passive Income proves that being an authority in your niche is important. Pat Flynn is the creator of the site, and affiliate marketing and other forms of online income are not only where his expertise lies, but it’s also what he sells. Flynn recommends hosting, blogging tools, helpful books, and more resources to guide others toward making their own passive income with his expertise.
And of course I had an adorable picture of a puppy as the image. I also only targeted people over the age of 25 who live in the United States that own a dog and also “like” an animal shelter (I chose about 50 different shelters to target). And that’s how I got 25,000 followers at under 1 cent per like. Those 25,000 people can be marketed to over and over and over again with my Amazon Associates affiliate program link.
Affiliate marketing also is a very broad term; under this umbrella there are several different strategies that can be employed to generate affiliate revenue. The most appropriate and lucrative method (or methods) can depend on a number of factors, including your site’s niche and characteristics of your audience. Below is an overview of some of the most popular affiliate marketing implementations, along with examples of each.
We could fib and say that building an affiliate website is simple, but that wouldn’t do you or your business any good. In truth, people spend days and weeks just researching the best niche and products for their affiliate sites. Then, it’s time to build, market, and plan content for the site to build an audience of people who are interested in the products you recommend.
[Sender.Company] is a proven leader in affiliate marketing. We have a track record of optimizing our clients’ current affiliate platform to help them realize an average increase in clicks, conversions, revenue, and average order value. Our affiliate strategy is tailored for each client depending on the goals set forth by the client and include a combination of publisher recruitment and commission optimization.
I've been doing affiliate marketing – successfully – for well over a decade. While I earn affiliate income from this website, I've made the bulk of my affiliate revenue from selling real users products and services – in multiple niches - that have nothing to do with the making money online niche. I've been nominated as Affiliate of the Year three times in the Affiliate Summit Pinnacle Awards – taking home the award in 2016. I've spent the last decade+ teaching people how to find success with affiliate marketing - based on my own experiences - as well as advocating for the industry as a whole. I'm often blunt and can sometimes be controversial, but I'm also 100% bullshit free.
Affiliate Training and Support.  We may make available to you, without charge, various webinars and other resources made available as part of our Affiliate Program. If we make such resources available to you, you will encourage your sales representatives and/or other relevant personnel to participate in training and/or other certifications as we recommend and may make available to you from time-to-time. We may change or discontinue any or all parts of the Affiliate Program benefits or offerings at any time without notice.
And of course I had an adorable picture of a puppy as the image. I also only targeted people over the age of 25 who live in the United States that own a dog and also “like” an animal shelter (I chose about 50 different shelters to target). And that’s how I got 25,000 followers at under 1 cent per like. Those 25,000 people can be marketed to over and over and over again with my Amazon Associates affiliate program link.
Amazing and thorough breakdown of how it all works! Thank you so much for sharing! a group of 3 friends myself + 2 are about to start affiliate marketing together. Since many advertising rules have changed with affiliate marketing (facebook ads etc.) and many articles have not been updated since, weʻd love any advice or suggestions you have for 2018!

This could leave many once competitive niches with a lot more gaps for you to build and leverage into with your niche sites. While we don’t believe we’ll see a mass exodus from Amazon Associates (Even with the currently grumbling about the changes online), some niches may be more affected by this than others so it may pay to look for gaps in the market.
Passive Income – This is the ultimate goal to continually generate income and it is doable with affiliate marketing specially when you are promoting a product that has a great continuity program. For instance, Cable TV, Cell Phone bills, and anything that people can not live a better life without and hence they are subscribing monthly. Things like Home Security Systems, Medical Alerts, Personal Credit Monitors, Anti Virus Softwares and more… Even your subscription to your favorite gym that you go to or the one of a kind vitamin supplement that you take regularly can be seen as a product you can promote.

4.5 In the event of termination, the following shall apply: (i) you shall forthwith stop all marketing and promotional activities for the Sites and all rights and licenses granted to you under this Agreement shall forthwith terminate; (ii) you shall return all confidential and/or proprietary information and cease all use of Our Marks and Our Materials; (iii) we shall be entitled to leave open, redirect or deactivate any Trackers, as we may elect in the exercise of our sole discretion; (iv) save as provided to the contrary in this Agreement, we shall pay you due and outstanding commissions as at the effective date of termination but subject to all our rights of deduction and set-off and shall not be liable to you for any other payments and/or claims whatsoever.


We could say this one’s for the pros, who don’t just want to do some simple selling of products through their articles, but want to develop an entire e-commerse store that lists and sells. The platform this program will focus on is WooCommerce that will help you build your online store. You will be required to know WordPress before you decide to sign up for this one and have a domain ready to host your site. It will help you pick a niche, do keyword research for that niche, maximize conversions, promote your site via social media, even help you learn basics of email marketing and much more.
Armed with this knowledge you’d think that people would spend more time testing their theme or website layout to determine the optimal way to make money from their website right? Well, this is precisely why once you get your website to start earning ~$1,000 per month you should consider testing out a new theme. It doesn’t make sense to start testing theme changes or try moving to a new theme until you are making at least ~$1,000 per month.
An affiliate marketing program is a lot of work, and in most situations there's a lot of competition so you're not going to be bringing in money immediately. Business owners and entrepreneurs suppose that all you need do is setup a site and choose an affiliate to associate with and then just let it run its course. But according to Three Ladders Marketing, only 0.6% of affiliate marketers surveyed have been in the game since 2013. That means that affiliate marketing takes time and effort to build and make money.
Most of the traffic for your affiliate website will come from product related searches, and product reviews. Generally, these will be more long-tail terms such as, “Blendtec 570 vs Vitamix 5300”, or “greenworks mower vs black and decker”. The traffic coming from keywords like these will be very targeted, as the searcher has the intention to purchase something.
b) All legal or other fees incurred in collecting returned checks or declined credit cards or any other lack of payment related to a sale made by an affiliate will be payable by the affiliate. Any sums not collected from the affiliate or affiliate’s customer are not commissionable, and any fees incurred during processing or handling of sales made by the affiliate will be deducted in whole from any commissions due to the affiliate. Further, in the event that the commissions due the affiliate are insufficient to cover any sums, the affiliate agrees to pay the full amount to the Program Operator.
Today, Henry is one of the foremost affiliate marketers, winning contests and awards (he even recently won a Lamborghini in a ClickFunnels affiliate marketing contest) at nearly every turn. And he's built up a devoted tribe that is so emotionally attached to him and his message that it's reached a mass-hysteria level that I would only liken to a internet celebrity, earning him upwards of three-hundred-thousand dollars per month on autopilot.
When you are ready to proceed, I invite you to take advantage of the 2 FREE Websites being offered by Wealthy Affiliate through their SiteRubix Platform to see if this is right for you. If you decide it is not, you get to keep the 2 FREE websites for life. They also offer training and a whole spectrum of resources to help you succeed online. They have over 1,000,000 + members with common goals and you get to interact and collaborate with them. This is where most Affiliate Marketers manage and host their respective businesses as well as sharing their knowledge and expertise. Join the Party, Be Involve, Be Inspired and Most of All, Create Your Prosperity.
Amazon and affiliate marketing in general is a decent way of making side income, but nothing really compares to making your own product or service that others will pay for, especially something that ppl will pay for month after month. WIth affiliate marketing, you’re basically helping retailers find lifelong customers, and you get a cut just once. Bad deal, IMO
Disputes: Affiliate has access to FatCow's real-time Affiliate Program statistics and agrees to file any disputes within forty-five (45) days after the end of the month in which the sale or event that is disputed occurred. Disputes filed after forty-five (45) days of the date on which the disputed sale or event occurred will not be accepted by FatCow and Affiliate forfeits forever any rights to a potential claim.
(i) Place our Links or any marketing materials provided by us to you including but not limited to our logos, marks, domain name, trade name or any of the aforegoing ("Our Marks") which is confusingly similar to or is comprised of Our Marks (collectively, "Our Materials") on any online site or other medium where the material on such site or medium is as determined by us, in the exercise of our absolute discretion, illegal or in any other way unsuitable.
Companies online will give you a commission if you refer a customer to them. An easy example would be with Amazon. Amazon has an affiliate program called Amazon Associates. It’s free to join and takes just a couple minutes to set up. From there you can search every product that is on Amazon and get your personal referral link. Let’s say your friend mentioned they wanted a new TV. You could send them your referral link for a TV on Amazon. Your friend buys the TV for $500, and Amazon gives you 6% of that sale. That means you made $30 without doing anything. Pretty cool, huh?
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