1. Amazon is a trusted Brand – I surveyed some of my readers a year back and asked them to give me a list of online stores that they had made purchases from in the last 12 months. Amazon came up number 1 as the most popular shopping destination mentioned. Readers know Amazon and are familiar with it – they trust it and do spend significant money there.
Thank you so much for a clear and concise breakdown of the Amazon Associate program. I’ve been ready (finally) to make the jump and have been working out my monetization strategies. This tutorial has not only helped me better understand how the program works, but has also given me some other – much simpler – ideas for other niche sites that I can get up and going very quickly! I appreciate your hard work and the effort you put into this. I look forward to reading more from you.

AFFILIATE PROGRAM AGREEMENT This Affiliate Program Agreement (the "Agreement") is made and effective the [DATE] BETWEEN: [YOUR COMPANY NAME] (the "Owner"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the [State/Province] of [STATE/PROVINCE], with its head office located at: [YOUR COMPLETE ADDRESS] AND: [RECIPIENT NAME] (the "Recipient"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the [State/Province] of [STATE/PROVINCE], with its head office located at: [COMPLETE ADDRESS] In consideration of the terms and covenants of this agreement, and other valuable consideration, the parties agree
COMPANY’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY FOR THE WARRANTY PROVIDED IN SUBPARAGRAH (A) HEREOF SHALL BE TO CORRECT THE TECHNOLOGY TO OPERATE IN SUBSTANTIAL ACCORDANCE WITH ITS THEN CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS OR REPLACE, AT ITS OPTION, THE TECHNOLOGY NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH COMPANY’S AND COMPANY’ PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGY; PROVIDED, ANY CLAIM FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY UNDER SUBPARAGRAPH (A) HEREOF MUST BE MADE IN WRITING WITHIN (90) DAYS FROM DATE OF SHIPMENT.

You agree not to intentionally solicit for employment any of our employees or contractors during the term of this Agreement and for a period of twelve (12) months following the termination or expiration of this Agreement.  Both you and we acknowledge that (i) any newspaper or other public solicitation not directed specifically to such person shall not be deemed to be a solicitation for purposes of this provision, and (ii) this provision is not intended to limit the mobility of either our employees or contractors.
Now, when I choose who to target for this ad, I would only target dog owners at least 25 years old who have “liked” Amazon.com in the past and live in the United States. Notice in the title I asked, “Are you a dog owner?” Well, I already know that everyone I’m targeting IS a dog owner! This, along with the catchy image, will grab their attention and cause them to read the body of the ad. If the body of the ad sounds interesting to them, they will click the ad and end up on Amazon.com through my Amazon Associates affiliate program link. Once on Amazon, the sky is the limit. Amazon is able to convert visitors like CRAZY. Just get potential buyers through the door and let Amazon handle the rest.
3.1. We have the right to monitor your site at any time to determine if you are following the terms and conditions of this Agreement. We may notify you of any changes to your site that we feel should be made, or to make sure that your links to our web site are appropriate and to notify further you of any changes that we feel should be made. If you do not make the changes to your site that we feel are necessary, we reserve the right to terminate your participation in the Merchant.com Affiliate Program.
“…disclosing on your Site accurately and adequately, either through a privacy policy or otherwise, how you collect, use, store, and disclose data collected from visitors, including, where applicable, that third parties (including us and other advertisers) may serve content and advertisements, collect information directly from visitors, and place or recognize cookies on visitors’ browsers.”
Affiliate marketing allows you to recommend products and services from other companies and be paid a commission if someone buys the product as the result of your recommendation. To track which purchases happens as a result of your recommendation(s), the merchant will provide you with a special link to use when linking to their website that contains a unique referral code assigned to you. If people click that unique link, and buy the product or service within a specified timeframe (the timeframe varies depending on the merchant), you get a commission on the sale.
Hi Art, we have the disclosure on the footer of virtually every page, but you can do things like make a link to Amazon on phrases such as “Crest Whitestrips” or even “Get a great deal on Crest Whitestrips” – This article is a good read where Sara asked Amazon to clarify these exact questions: http://marketingwithsara.com/amazon/warning-to-all-affiliate-marketers
Some commentators originally suggested that affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. For instance, if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website, an affiliate link leading to a merchant's internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. If a website contains information pertaining to sports, an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. The goal, in this case, is to publish quality information on the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites.
As search engines have become more prominent, some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated web pages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The goal of such web pages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, also known as spamdexing. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords, with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization.
Don’t set a goal to write 3 blog posts a day… set a goal to write 1 blog post a week and make that post super helpful, long, and filled with information that is so valuable you will say “yeah, people will link to that.” 90% of my traffic/affiliate income comes from just 20 tutorials, many of which are 5+ years old. But I am constantly updating them to make the content better.
The value proposition is a bit less direct in this case, but can still be very effective. Carolla provides a service to his audience in the form of free entertainment (the podcast) and then asks for support in order to pay the bills. In this case, the “ask” can be very effective since he’s just requesting his listeners to take a few seconds to get to Amazon through his affiliate link.
Hosting – I suggest joining the WordPress Hosting and WordPress Speed Up Facebook Group and see what real (unbiased) people are saying about hosting. SiteGround was #1 in multiple Facebook polls and #1 in most Facebook conversations (this one too). People who migrate usually see significant load time improvements especially if they’re currently using Godaddy/EIG. I use their semi-dedicated GoGeek plan which comes with 4x more server resources than regular shared hosting (#1 factor in WordPress Optimization Guide) and have <1s load times with 100% scores in GTmetrix/Pingdom. SiteGround also does free migrations.
For example, let’s say that we want to promote Drip as the better alternative to Infusionsoft… We would write up a comparative article that shows all of the reasons we like Drip better. We would then login to Google Adwords and create an ad campaign that links to our article and targets anyone who searches for “Infusionsoft” or “Infusionsoft Alternative.”
3. Termination. Amazon may suspend or terminate Influencer’s participation in the Amazon Influencer Program, and Influencer may terminate such participation, in each case immediately by notice provided in accordance with the termination provisions of the Agreement. The rights set forth in Section 2 of this Influencer Program Policy will survive the termination of Influencer’s participation in the Amazon Influencer Program; provided that, we will use commercially reasonable efforts to remove any Influencer Marks from the Influencer Page following termination.
First, you can use Facebook Advertising and link directly to Amazon using your affiliate link. What you need to do here is find something that has extremely high demand, such as halloween costumes in October or the most popular kids toy during the Christmas season. Don’t just choose anything, go with something you KNOW is in demand. Then, you need to be very highly targeted in your advertising. With Facebook ads, you can target very specifically including by profession, age, sex, religion, whether they have kids or pets, own or rent, are in a relationship, etc. Narrow down as much as you can and target your ad to that specific group.
Except as agreed between you and us in a separate written agreement referencing this Section 5, you will not use any Program Content or Special Link, or otherwise link to an Amazon Site, on or in connection with: (a) any client-side software application (e.g., a browser plug-in, helper object, toolbar, extension, component, or any other application executable or installable by an end user) on any device, including computers, mobile phones, tablets, or other handheld devices (other than Approved Mobile Applications); or (b) any television set-top box (e.g., digital video recorders, cable or satellite boxes, streaming video players, blu-ray players, or dvd players) or Internet-enabled television (e.g., GoogleTV, Sony Bravia, Panasonic Viera Cast, or Vizio Internet Apps).
The value proposition is a bit less direct in this case, but can still be very effective. Carolla provides a service to his audience in the form of free entertainment (the podcast) and then asks for support in order to pay the bills. In this case, the “ask” can be very effective since he’s just requesting his listeners to take a few seconds to get to Amazon through his affiliate link.

So these were what we found to be some of the Best Amazon Affiliate Marketing Courses, Programs and Training Online that will help you set up your affiliate websites and affiliate stores. You may also be interested in checking out Best Affiliate Marketing Courses Online , Best ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Courses to Earn Passive Income , How to Import from AliBaba and Sell on Amazon as well as 8 Best Shopify Marketing Courses to Increase Sales and Profits. For Email Marketing, you may want to see these 7 Best EMail Marketing Courses Online and many other digital learning courses listed on our courses page.


File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.
Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]

Security:  Each party shall implement and maintain all appropriate technical and organizational measures to protect any copies of the Personal Data in their possession or control from (i) accidental or unlawful destruction, and (ii) loss, alteration, or unauthorized disclosure or access (a "Security Incident") and to preserve the security and confidentiality of such Personal Data. Each party shall notify the other party without undue delay on becoming aware of any breach of EU Data Protection Law/Applicable Data Protection Law.
For example, someone like Tim Ferriss can recommend products to his audience because he has earned an authoritative voice on fitness, productivity, learning and lifestyle design through his blog and his books. Tim’s blog is a perfect example of how to build a successful affiliate model. Tim rarely actually recommends products, but when he does you can tell he is being genuine and not just trying to earn money from his audience.
What initially attracted me to using Amazon’s Affiliate program was the breadth of products that they had in their system. This is a great thing if you’re niche is narrow or quite obscure as many bloggers find it difficult to find affiliate programs to match their blog’s focus. Blogs like John’s and mine here at ProBlogger do have an array of options for affiliate programs (which is why I don’t use it a lot on this blog and make most of my earnings from Amazon from product related blogs) but many bloggers don’t have the luxury of being able to choose high paying affiliate programs because they simply don’t relate to our topics. Amazon then becomes one of the more attractive options.
Although he had tried countless times in the past, he had failed to quit. But this time was different. His frame-of-mind had changed. And something inside of him clicked when he realized he could use electronic cigarettes to actually ween himself off the "real thing." He implemented a system where he used a low-quality gas station brand, and went from strong to medium then mild over a multi-week period.
An example of this business would be to create a blog in a particular niche. Let’s say you’re an audiophile. You could create a headphone review blog. On this blog, you write articles on your favorite headphones and tell people where they can buy it on Amazon. You then place your referral link for those headphones in your article. When people read the article and decide to buy the headphones, you get paid. Simple right?
The important thing is finding a site that works for your product specifically. This can be a bit tricky, depending on what you are selling. It is unlikely you are going to find a site that is selling your EXACT product (though it is a nice bonus if they do). On the other hand, you should be looking at sites that are closely related to your niche – if you’re selling running shoes and you stumble upon an Amazon affiliate site selling treadmills, for instance, this could be a good purchase for you as a way to sell more of your shoes. If you sell hardcore health juicers, an Amazon affiliate kitchen website could potentially be alright, but you would likely see far less benefit of buying that site as a strategic acquisition.
Who can tell me if “link masking or cloaking” is a violation of the Google TOS? I think it is and I see dozens of affiliate sites doing it. I also see quite a few sites not using “nofollow” on their affiliate links. Unless your masked link says something like “I bought product X used in this review at Amazon.com” it would be a violation. I think if reported, you’d be in for a manual spam action against your site. Thoughts?

Newbies and intermediate affiliate marketers tend to be too detail oriented. They spend countless hours testing new offers, creating content and looking for new traffic sources. More experienced marketers understand importance of looking at the bigger picture. They must observe trends to anticipate new changes, such as the types of offers that will be profitable in the future and which traffic sources will be most profitable in the future.
Choose products carefully. Don't promote something you wouldn't buy or don't like just to make money. It will backfire and cause you to lose credibility with your website visitors. People are more likely to buy products you personally recommend. If you don't have experience with the product, be sure to check out reviews to see what other people's experience with it is.
It is solely your responsibility to provide FatCow with accurate tax and payment information that is necessary to issue a Commission Fee to you. If FatCow does not receive the necessary tax or payment information within ninety (90) days of a Qualified Purchase which would otherwise trigger Commission Fees, the applicable commissions shall not accrue and no Commission Fees will be owed with respect to such Qualified Purchase.

I’ve been an Amazon affiliate for many years. At first it was great but now Amazon treats affiliates more like competitors than a feeder of business. Amazon’s performance after a transaction is “handed off” to them is horrible. In any given month they “loose” from 60% to 80% of my customers’ orders at check out. These are not conversion rates on a link but actual orders at check out.


first off, show visitors that you have a great site by getting a better theme! You did not get a penalty because of affiliate content, nor have I ever heard of, however, I have heard of sites in the past getting penalty for having do follow links to affiliate programs such as amazon, remember, google does not like you giving credit to a site in exchange for receiving paid compensation, so ask yourself, are your external links nofollow? this may also include any buttons/graphics that link to affiliate sites that do not have a no follow attribute, not going to go to much into this, so I am going to assume your content is ok, if it is, then you need to check your link portfolio; maybe you have too many low quality links and/or you may have over-optimized anchor/text in your link building efforts; bad links, over optimization are common link issues that could cause your site to get a penalty, as it is not about what you are writing about, if all else fails, then hire seo consultant for an entire site autdit, they will go through your site tooth and nail, and see why you have lost your rankings. good luck.
Although it differs from spyware, adware often uses the same methods and technologies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware, what impact it had, and how it could damage their brands. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly, especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies, thus resulting in a decline of commissions. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user, who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer.

Upon your request but subject to our approval, we may issue you additional “sub-tag” Associate IDs that permit you to monitor and optimize the performance of your Special Links by including different sub-tags in the URLs of different Special Links. Under no circumstances may you associate any sub-tag with a specific end user of your Site (e.g., you may not dynamically assign sub-tags to users as they arrive on your Site for purposes of monitoring such users’ behavior).
Any attempt by an Affiliate to manipulate, falsify or inflate Referred Customers, Qualified Purchases, or Commission Fees to intentionally defraud FatCow or any violation of the terms of this Agreement constitutes immediate grounds for FatCow to terminate the Affiliates participation in the Affiliate Program and will result in the forfeiture of any Commission Fees due to the Affiliate.

4.4 In the event that you account with us is inactive, this Agreement will automatically terminate. Your account will be deemed inactive and this Agreement will terminate and your participation in our Affiliate program automatically cease if: (i) you have not generated the Minimum Commission during a period of 3 consecutive months; (ii) you have failed to respond to any verification mails sent to you within a reasonable time. Upon automatic termination, any commissions due to you shall revert to us.
It might be tempting to start recommending a variety of products that spark your interest on your website, but this isn’t the key to success. Very few affiliate sites find success without first picking a niche. For example, TheWireCutter.com focuses on in-depth product reviews of electronics and techie gadgets. HostingAdvice.com provides helpful reviews about hosting companies and related products.
This Local Associates Policy applies to any registered business that offers face-to-face customer experiences and that facilitates customer purchases on Amazon.com (“Local Associates Program”) operated by an Associate in one or more of its owned or operated facilities registered on the program portal at https://affiliate-program.amazon.com/local Associates Site (such portal, the “Local Associates Portal” and such facilities, the “Local Associates Facilities”). In order to participate in the Local Associates Program you must (A) be an owner or authorized employee of a registered business, (B) apply through the Local Associates Portal, (C) have your application accepted by Amazon, (D) not be also registered for the Amazon Associates Program, and (E) comply with the applicable provisions of the Associates Program Operating Agreement, including this Local Associates Policy.
In 2009, I originally published this post, the 3 Types of Affiliate Marketing Explained—and The One I Profit From. A lot has changed since then, and I’ve learned a ton along the way about affiliate marketing the right way. It’s now October 2018, and I wanted to share those new insights here, with a bunch of new takeaways for you to bring affiliate marketing into your own business!

It’s such a dramatic “how to” curious area that grows a reader’s attention more thirsty to know the last word for his fulfillment. You should arrange the brief points of the topic as it’s background information messaging to the audiences that this is for them to solve their somehow problems. Make it different in style of approach, funny and empathetic for the readers to propel them for digging up the solution. You shouldn’t miss stitching one main keyword in this strategic SEO area.

Hello, I was reading your blog and I am interested in the topic. I commented that I am somewhat familiar with the subject of the sale, but it was evaluating the possibility to enrol in the course for $10, it is not expensive. But before I know if it is possible that within the course you show me where to buy the products that you sell. I say this, since you post that you are selling more than 3000 products, but I would like to know where to buy best precious for sale on amazon.
So these were what we found to be some of the Best Amazon Affiliate Marketing Courses, Programs and Training Online that will help you set up your affiliate websites and affiliate stores. You may also be interested in checking out Best Affiliate Marketing Courses Online , Best ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Courses to Earn Passive Income , How to Import from AliBaba and Sell on Amazon as well as 8 Best Shopify Marketing Courses to Increase Sales and Profits. For Email Marketing, you may want to see these 7 Best EMail Marketing Courses Online and many other digital learning courses listed on our courses page.
Longtime affiliate marketer and co-founder of Shareist Scott Jangro suspects that Gawker Media’s Amazon widgets are custom-built. “It looks like they’ve built a system allowing them to capture data that gives them full-circle reporting on what’s getting bought, through which page, and possibly even by user,” he told me. “Showing a count of purchased products for social proof is just one of the many things they can do with this data.”
(b) during a single session, which is measured as beginning when a customer clicks through that Special Link and ending upon the first to occur of the following: (x) 24 hours elapse from that click, (y) the customer places an order for a Product, other than a digital item sold under the name “Amazon Music,” “Amazon Shorts”, “eDocs”, “Amazon Prime Video”, “Amazon Software Downloads”, “Game Downloads”, “Kindle Books”, “Kindle Newspapers”, “Kindle Blogs”, “Kindle Newsfeeds”, or “Kindle Magazines” (a “Digital Product”), or (z) the customer clicks through a Special Link to an Amazon Site that is not your Special Link (a “Session”), any of the following happens:
How much richly informative the article is? How much appropriate the article style is? And how much more useful the article content is? These are the crucial issues in an article for the successful affiliate content marketing. Because all the arrangements are aimed to build up credibility and trust providing useful information through the article. And helps to generate leads and achieve higher conversion rates for earning ultimate revenue.
But of course there is more to it than that. Most people doing affiliate marketing are doing it in an aggressive way that when you look at what they are offering, you can immediately tell that they are only doing it for the sake of earning a commission. While that may be the ultimate goal, it may not be the proper way of building a relationship with your customer. It is best to provide them descriptive, informative and helpful solutions so that they feel that what they are getting into is something beneficial to them.
5.1 We make no express or implied warranties or representations with respect to our Affiliate program or any products or items sole through such program (including without limitation, warranties of fitness, merchantability, non-infringement, or any implied warranties arising out of a course of performance or trade usage). We make no representation or warranty that the operation of the Sites or any of them will be interrupted or error-free and will not be liable for the consequences interruptions or errors.
2.1. To begin the enrollment process, you will complete and submit the online application at the ShareASale.com server. The fact that we auto-approve applications does not imply that we may not re-evaluate your application at a later time. We may reject your application at our sole discretion. We may cancel your application if we determine that your site is unsuitable for our Program, including if it:
It is understood that any individual that uses the Program Operator system shall not use it in connection with obscene, defamatory, slanderous, hateful, illegal or politically disruptive material, the definition of which shall be at the sole discretion of the Program Operator. It is also understood that affiliates shall not try to cheat the system in an effort to increase their payments due. If such misuse is detected, the affiliate will be immediately terminated as an affiliate and any sums paid and any sums payable as and for commissions will be withheld. All affiliates further agree to refrain from engaging in any hostile activity toward the system. Any individual that engages in such hostile activity, such as hacking, shall be held liable for any loss sustained by the Program Operator, or its associates due to such action.
(v) You will not cloak, hide, spoof, or otherwise obscure the URL of your Site containing Special Links (including by use of Redirecting Links) or the user agent of the application in which Program Content is displayed or used such that we cannot reasonably determine the site or application from which a customer clicks through such Special Link to an Amazon Site.
Most successful affiliate marketers, however, do not have a large number of funds available so they tend to develop a website and use their website as the main advertising source for their business. Starting a website is very cheap (or even free), you don’t need to know any computer code, and it will attract FREE visitors that can be turned into paying customers relatively easily. This is the affiliate marketing business model that most people start with.
Just like a real-world funnel, a sales funnel acts similarly. It funnels down visitors through several stages before they become buyers. The way Henry explains it, if you're not creating an emotional attachment during each stage of that funnel, then you're largely wasting your time. It has to start from the very beginning, and it has to carry out all the way to beyond the purchase.

After finding your blog, a couple weeks ago, I finally setup a carousel on one of my blogs. After reading your blog, I had a bunch of different ideas on how to use my Amazon affiliate account across a handful of my blogs but as of April 15th, Amazon is closing the affiliate program for all Illinois residents. The Illinois governor signed a tax law that requires Amazon to charge tax on affiliate sales in Illinois even if the retailer doesn’t have a presence here.
Passive Income – This is the ultimate goal to continually generate income and it is doable with affiliate marketing specially when you are promoting a product that has a great continuity program. For instance, Cable TV, Cell Phone bills, and anything that people can not live a better life without and hence they are subscribing monthly. Things like Home Security Systems, Medical Alerts, Personal Credit Monitors, Anti Virus Softwares and more… Even your subscription to your favorite gym that you go to or the one of a kind vitamin supplement that you take regularly can be seen as a product you can promote.
Back when text link ads were a big deal, I remember seeing every single “make money online” website with a 125 x 125 pixel advertisement for Text Link Ads, which was an older advertising model where you could have advertisers pay for having specific terms on your website become links to their products. This was big in the blogosphere when I was just starting out. Most of these sites did not actually use the text link ad service on their own sites. On many personal finance blogs, you’ll see a lot of different affiliate advertisements for things like ING, Everbank, LendingClub, and numerous other financial institutions.

The affiliate marketing industry is somewhat unique in the transparency of many of its members. There’s a general willingness to share experiences, including both successes and failures. Below are some of the most in-depth and useful interviews and tutorials put together by affiliate marketers who put in the hard work to build up a profitable affiliate operation (in some cases, more than once):
5.1 We make no express or implied warranties or representations with respect to our Affiliate program or any products or items sole through such program (including without limitation, warranties of fitness, merchantability, non-infringement, or any implied warranties arising out of a course of performance or trade usage). We make no representation or warranty that the operation of the Sites or any of them will be interrupted or error-free and will not be liable for the consequences interruptions or errors.
This year two affiliate marketers based in California, Shawn Hogan and Brian Dunning, pleaded guilty to defrauding eBay of at least $20 million in a scheme involving a notorious affiliate marketing tactic known as “cookie stuffing.” According to court documents, Mr. Hogan operated a network in which affiliates exchanged links and banner ads to help drive traffic to each other’s sites. The sites also agreed to host ads controlled by Mr. Hogan’s company, but in reality, these ads were cookie-stuffing devices. Users who viewed the ads had a small tracking code, or cookie, dropped on their computer. If those users went on to make a purchase from eBay, the cookie signaled that Mr. Hogan’s company was responsible — and eBay paid a commission.
With a little bit of creativity, this business model can be molded into any business. It can be used as a personal moneymaker, as a legitimate company, or even as a supplement for a company already adopting a different business model. As we enter a new era of virtual reality, crypto-currencies, and whatever crazy new tech that comes out think about how you can implement the affiliate marketing model into future businesses. Wake up; we are in a gold rush.
Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[29]
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