Every single network or merchant will provide you with specific links that you can use to promote whatever it is you're looking to sell. Be sure to scrutinize the details of any offer that you decide to partake in. Then, build out your affiliate links and ensure that the sales and clicks are registering your to your account. You can use URL shorteners like Bitly or Google's own shortener to make the links more manageable in terms of length.

The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.


This year two affiliate marketers based in California, Shawn Hogan and Brian Dunning, pleaded guilty to defrauding eBay of at least $20 million in a scheme involving a notorious affiliate marketing tactic known as “cookie stuffing.” According to court documents, Mr. Hogan operated a network in which affiliates exchanged links and banner ads to help drive traffic to each other’s sites. The sites also agreed to host ads controlled by Mr. Hogan’s company, but in reality, these ads were cookie-stuffing devices. Users who viewed the ads had a small tracking code, or cookie, dropped on their computer. If those users went on to make a purchase from eBay, the cookie signaled that Mr. Hogan’s company was responsible — and eBay paid a commission.

Each affiliate is responsible for selecting the payment processor, through which to receive their commissions/referral fees, from the payment processors supported by the Program Operator. If you elect a payment processor through which to receive your commissions and you later terminate the account or the account becomes unavailable for any reason, the Program Operator is not responsible for your not receiving the money. Each affiliate is responsible for always maintaining the payment processor through which they receive their commissions/referral fees OR selecting an alternate method of payment supported by the Program Operator. This election is entirely made by the affiliate and the Program Operator assumes no responsibility for non-receipt of payments made according to the payment processor elected by the affiliate, or the affiliate’s lack of ability to then conform to the payment processors or processes supported by the the Program Operator. The Program Operator assumes no responsibility for an affiliate not electing a payment processor. If an affiliate fails to elect a payment processor, any sums due will be paid via check and any fees applicable to payments by check or bank draft will be deducted.
It seems easier said that done, is it not? I believe so but this is doing it for FREE remember? When you are ready to venture online and set aside an initial investment, you will have a full spectrum of resources and you can also collaborate with others with common goals to succeed. Continue reading as I will tell you more about a platform that I believe has the best opportunity to get you started in the right direction.
2.2. As a member of Merchant.com's Affiliate Program, you will have access to Affiliate Account Manager. Here you will be able to review our Program’s details and previously-published affiliate newsletters, download HTML code (that provides for links to web pages within the Merchant.com web site) and banner creatives, browse and get tracking codes for our coupons and deals. In order for us to accurately keep track of all guest visits from your site to ours, you must use the HTML code that we provide for each banner, text link, or other affiliate link we provide you with.
Chris, I am glad you have had good fortune with amazon, I think I have chosen the wrong niche, it appears to be very competitive, I have had my site for 4 mo, and have made zero, however, it may not be all bad, I still work on content, and I do get indexing, however, I am at a loss on how to find keywords on ranking content; If I could find this out, then I could do some seo on any LSI keywords. I do agree about having a nice looking website, I paid far much less then you did, and I think I turned out with a site that looks very nice; If visitors do not think you are legit, or if you content looks like trash, then the will bounce before you can blink. I think once I can find those magic LSI keywords and rank them, then I think things will turn around, as I have also invested quite a bit up until this point.
5. Payment Options – Amazon pays their affiliates in a number of ways. One of the things that I like is that they give you the option to be paid in products instead of cash. I don’t do this every month (I couldn’t spend that $20,000+ a year at Amazon… well maybe I could) but occasionally do and use it as prizes for blog readers. I recently offered DPS readers $500 of Amazon products in a forum signup competition. The prize is paid for out of my affiliate earnings.

Amazon operates a volume-based advertising fee structure. The more products that are shipped as a result of your affiliate links, the more you'll make per sale. Once you have sold enough products to move up to a different advertising rate, all subsequent sales will give you commission at that rate, until and unless you reach the next fee level. Note that some products are exempt from this commission structure.

I have been using LongTailPro for more than a year and have just started using the cloud version. It’s very fast and easy to use! Since I have been using LongTailPro, I have saved a lot of money not having to build that many links. Most of the keywords revealed by LongTailPro rank without building links. There are lots of very well written tutorials and videos that guide you. The training is all white hat! It’s helped me a lot with my SEO business. Keep up the good work guys! 

Until 2017, Amazon offered a stepped commission structure so that affiliates who sold a lot of products were paid a higher commission than those who sold little. However, Amazon eliminated this structure and began using flat commission rates for different types of products. While this is likely to continue evolving, examples of the commission structure in 2018 are as follow:
Choose products carefully. Don't promote something you wouldn't buy or don't like just to make money. It will backfire and cause you to lose credibility with your website visitors. People are more likely to buy products you personally recommend. If you don't have experience with the product, be sure to check out reviews to see what other people's experience with it is.
Affiliate Contracts (i) Amend, modify or waive any material term or provision of any Affiliate Contract or any Third Party Contract as in effect on the Closing Date without the prior written consent of Required Lenders, (ii) enter into any new Affiliate Contract or Third Party Contract following the Closing Date, unless such contract is (a) substantially similar to the form of contracts entered into by Borrowers with the Affiliate Plants prior to the Closing Date and (b) promptly delivered to Agent or (iii) offer more favorable marketing fee arrangements under any Affiliate Contract than those marketing fee arrangements offered under any Third Party Contract.

Any products you choose should also have acceptable prices and be available to purchase most of the time. Some products aren’t sold by Amazon, but through sellers only. These can sometimes have higher markups than the product sold elsewhere, which can be a turn-off for your audience. Items sold by sellers might run out of inventory fast, too, so look for products that don’t appear to have a history of this issue.
My conversion rate went from 2.5% to 8% just by including Facebook polls where SiteGround was rated #1 (here’s last year’s poll) plus Twitter screenshots and Facebook conversations. Whether it’s Amazon reviews or social proof, you NEED to include outside opinions. You can also use WP Rich Snippets to allow people to leave a review about the product/service on your site and get those review stars in Google (you will want to use their front end submit add-on).
Disclaimer. EXCEPT AS PERMITTED HEREIN, YOU SHALL NOT AND ARE NOT AUTHORIZED TO (i) USE THE FATCOW TRADEMARK, NAME OR ANY OF OUR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE LINKS, AND THE LICENSED MATERIALS (COLLECTIVELY, THE “FATCOW IP”) (OR ANY VARIATIONS OR MISSPELLINGS THEREOF OR OTHER TERM OR TERMS CONFUSINGLY SIMILAR TO ANY OF THE FOREGOING) WITHOUT FATCOW’S EXPRESS PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION; (ii) USE FATCOW IP IN A DOMAIN OR WEBSITE NAME, IN ANY BIDS FOR KEYWORDS OR GOOGLE ADWORDS (OR SIMILAR PROGRAMS AT OTHER SEARCH ENGINES), IN ANY SEARCH ENGINE ADVERTISING (PAID OR OTHERWISE), IN ANY METATAGS, GOOGLE ADWORDS (OR SIMILAR PROGRAMS AT OTHER SEARCH ENGINES), KEY WORDS, ADVERTISING, SEARCH TERMS, CODE, OR OTHERWISE; (iii) ACT IN ANY WAY THAT CAUSES OR CREATES OR COULD CAUSE OR CREATE ANY "INITIAL INTEREST CONFUSION" OVER THE USE OF FATCOW IP ON THE INTERNET OR IN ANY SEARCH ENGINE ADVERTISING. YOUR USE OF FATCOW IP IN ANY MANNER, OTHER THAN AS EXPRESSLY PERMITTED HEREUNDER SHALL CONSTITUTE UNLAWFUL INFRINGEMENT OF FATCOW’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, AND MAY SUBJECT YOU TO CLAIMS FOR DAMAGES (INCLUDING POTENTIAL TREBLE DAMAGES FOR KNOWING OR WILFUL INFRINGEMENT), AND THE OBLIGATION TO PAY FATCOW’S LEGAL FEES AND COSTS IN CONNECTION WITH ANY ACTION OR PROCEEDING IN WHICH FATCOW SEEKS TO ENFORCE ITS RIGHTS UNDER THIS AGREEMENT OR WITH REGARD TO ANY OF FATCOW’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

So how do we make sure we don’t get burned again? The answer is simple: don’t put all your eggs in one basket. In other words, if you’re looking to make money from your website, don’t just rely on one source of income! There are many different ways to make money with a niche website, including advertisements, selling digital or physical products, and more!

Know English, can earn. All you need to know is how to know to write for this one (or how to hire a writer). It is your holistic guide to creating a white hat (Google Friendly) affiliate sites that draw organic (free) traffic from Google Search and convert that into paying customers on Amazon via your content marketing website. 17.5 hours of unadulterated video content, lifetime access and even a certificate of completion. At a rating of 4.8 out of 5, it is a no brainer when it comes to deciding whether this is good or bad for you. Created by SEO Academy Leaders in SEO Education, this will get your Amazon Affiliate website SEO on the right track.
Amazon and affiliate marketing in general is a decent way of making side income, but nothing really compares to making your own product or service that others will pay for, especially something that ppl will pay for month after month. WIth affiliate marketing, you’re basically helping retailers find lifelong customers, and you get a cut just once. Bad deal, IMO
However, this idea is not solely for niche site experts. In fact, if you’ve been on the fence about creating a niche website, now might be the perfect time to act! You have the opportunity to make better commissions from the get-go, not having to wait for your referral sales to increase gradually. Beyond that, you might even make more commissions now than were possible with the old Amazon Associates Operating Agreement!
In 2006, the most active sectors for affiliate marketing were the adult gambling, retail industries and file-sharing services.[17]:149–150 The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone, finance, and travel sectors.[17] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix.[17]:149–150
(g) include any trademark of Amazon or its affiliates, or a variant or misspelling of a trademark of Amazon or its affiliates in any domain name, subdomain name, in any “tag” or Associates ID, or in any username, group name, or other identifier on any social networking site (see a non-exhaustive list of our trademarks listed on our Non-Exhaustive Trademark Table); or
One major disadvantage for an affiliate is the lack of control she has over the offer made to the customer, the sales page and the amount of commission earned. Super affiliates, those with a proven record of driving high-converting traffic, can negotiate preferential terms, but this option isn't open to the new affiliate. It is not unknown for merchants to cancel an offer without informing their affiliates, or to pay commissions late or not at all. Merchants may also make it a condition that the affiliate doesn't bid on specific paid search terms and some refuse to pay for any sales resulting from paid search advertising.
Commission and Payment. Requirements for Payment; Forfeiture. In order to receive payment under this Agreement, you must have: (i) agreed to the terms of this Agreement (generally completed through the Affiliate Tool); (ii) completed all steps necessary to create your account in the Affiliate Tool in accordance with our directions, (iii) have a valid and up-to-date paypal account and updated the Affiliate Tool with such account (iv) completed any and all required tax documentation in order for HubSpot to process any payments that may be owed to you.
11.1. No Agency. Each party shall act as an independent contractor and shall have no authority to obligate or bind the other in any respect, and nothing in this Agreement (including any Offer) shall create any partnership, joint ventures, agency, franchise, sales representative or employment relationship between the parties. Neither party shall make any statement, whether on their sites or otherwise, that reasonably would contradict anything in the paragraph.

A really good example of building an engaged audience is Thrillist. Thrillist started out as an email newsletter that curated products and experiences aimed at young american urban males. Thrillist was able to grow it’s subscriber base to millions of readers and has been able to generate significant revenue. In 2010, Thrillist acquired Jack Threads, a members only online fashion retailer.


Are they biting the hand that feeds them? Possibly. We will have to wait and see. Maybe Amazon gave the higher commission %’s to the products that have the highest markup…? i.e. their Amazon coins. I do believe tho they have reduced the incentive their own “affiliate employees” previously had to push their products-and maybe, just maybe this new commission structure will not last long.
Affiliate Contracts. Except for employment agreements and except as specifically identified on Schedule 5.14, there does not exist any contract, agreement or other arrangement between Seller and (a) any affiliate of Seller, (b) any entity in which Seller directly or indirectly owns more than a five percent (5%) interest or (c) any of the managers or members of Seller that will not be cancelled by Seller simultaneously with the Closing hereunder.
He also started attending the three-times-a-year Affiliate Summit marketing conference and other trade shows. “You’d be surprised at how much of a relationship business this is,” he said. “There are thousands upon thousands of affiliates out there, but you come to realize that a lot of the good ones all seem to know each other and there’s as much suspicion of merchants cheating affiliates out of commissions as the other way around.”
Except as agreed between you and us in a separate written agreement referencing this Section 5, you will not use any Program Content or Special Link, or otherwise link to an Amazon Site, on or in connection with: (a) any client-side software application (e.g., a browser plug-in, helper object, toolbar, extension, component, or any other application executable or installable by an end user) on any device, including computers, mobile phones, tablets, or other handheld devices (other than Approved Mobile Applications); or (b) any television set-top box (e.g., digital video recorders, cable or satellite boxes, streaming video players, blu-ray players, or dvd players) or Internet-enabled television (e.g., GoogleTV, Sony Bravia, Panasonic Viera Cast, or Vizio Internet Apps).
Any products you choose should also have acceptable prices and be available to purchase most of the time. Some products aren’t sold by Amazon, but through sellers only. These can sometimes have higher markups than the product sold elsewhere, which can be a turn-off for your audience. Items sold by sellers might run out of inventory fast, too, so look for products that don’t appear to have a history of this issue.
The question keeps lingering in my mind. What is affiliate marketing programs about? Is this an easy way to generate income online? Upon researching about the topic I found that this is a very lucrative business model and one that does not cost a whole lot of initial capital. There are literally countless out there you can join and the idea of affiliate marketing in itself is very doable. You simply become the deal maker to connect the buyer and the seller to perform a transaction. Once the transaction is successful you earn a commission.
Amazon and affiliate marketing in general is a decent way of making side income, but nothing really compares to making your own product or service that others will pay for, especially something that ppl will pay for month after month. WIth affiliate marketing, you’re basically helping retailers find lifelong customers, and you get a cut just once. Bad deal, IMO
File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.

There’s no universal consensus for what constitutes ‘long-form’ content. However, as a rule of thumb, you can think of this as any piece over 1,000 words. Research shows people tend to trust long-form content more. On the other hand, most online readers still tend to skim articles. This means you also need to find ways to adapt your longer content for skimmers.


However, this idea is not solely for niche site experts. In fact, if you’ve been on the fence about creating a niche website, now might be the perfect time to act! You have the opportunity to make better commissions from the get-go, not having to wait for your referral sales to increase gradually. Beyond that, you might even make more commissions now than were possible with the old Amazon Associates Operating Agreement!
At first I was reluctant to promote Amazon.com due to the poor cookie duration and low commissions. However, since Amazon has a huge inventory, it’s a trusted site, and you also get credit for sales customers make even though you weren’t necessarily promoting that specific product, it tends to make up for the negatives, so I have started promoting Amazon more. Great post btw!
Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications; however, the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities, and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing.[37]
(d) You will not, without our express prior written approval, use any Product Advertising Content on or in connection with any site or application designed or intended for use with a mobile phone or other handheld device (which prohibition apply neither to any site that is not designed or intended for use with such devices but that may be accessible by such devices, such as a non-mobile-optimized site accessed via an internet browser on a tablet device, nor an Approved Mobile Application as defined in the Participation Requirements or any television set-top box (e.g., digital video recorders, cable or satellite boxes, streaming video players, blu-ray players, or dvd players) or Internet-enabled television (e.g., GoogleTV, Sony Bravia, Panasonic Viera Cast, or Vizio Internet Apps).
We could fib and say that building an affiliate website is simple, but that wouldn’t do you or your business any good. In truth, people spend days and weeks just researching the best niche and products for their affiliate sites. Then, it’s time to build, market, and plan content for the site to build an audience of people who are interested in the products you recommend.
You agree not to intentionally solicit for employment any of our employees or contractors during the term of this Agreement and for a period of twelve (12) months following the termination or expiration of this Agreement.  Both you and we acknowledge that (i) any newspaper or other public solicitation not directed specifically to such person shall not be deemed to be a solicitation for purposes of this provision, and (ii) this provision is not intended to limit the mobility of either our employees or contractors.
Entire Agreement. This Agreement is the entire agreement between us for the Affiliate Program and supersedes all other proposals and agreements, whether electronic, oral or written, between us. We object to and reject any additional or different terms proposed by you, including those contained in your purchase order, acceptance or website. Our obligations are not contingent on the delivery of any future functionality or features of the HubSpot Products or dependent on any oral or written public comments made by us regarding future functionality or features of the HubSpot Products. It is the express wish of both you and us that this Agreement and all related documents be drawn up in English. We might make versions of this Agreement available in languages other than English. If we do, the English version of this Agreement will govern our relationship and the translated version is provided for convenience only and will not be interpreted to modify the English version of this Agreement.
iii. You will link each use of Product Advertising Content to, and only to, the relevant page of an Amazon Site (for example, the relevant Product detail page or other page to which particular Product Advertising Content most directly relates), and you will not link any Product Advertising Content to, or in conjunction with any Product Advertising Content direct traffic to, any page of a site other than an Amazon Site (however, parts of your application that are not closely associated with Product Advertising Content may contain links to sites other than an Amazon Site).
5. Payment Options – Amazon pays their affiliates in a number of ways. One of the things that I like is that they give you the option to be paid in products instead of cash. I don’t do this every month (I couldn’t spend that $20,000+ a year at Amazon… well maybe I could) but occasionally do and use it as prizes for blog readers. I recently offered DPS readers $500 of Amazon products in a forum signup competition. The prize is paid for out of my affiliate earnings.
Thanks a lot for those tips. I bought your course but found that the module for finding a niche cannot be easily applied for the following reasons: 1) domain (com, net, org) that match exact keywords are almost taken by someone else; 2) even if you can find an exact match keyword domain, changes are there are other competitors building similar niche review sites, simply adding good quality articles and build links with some social book marking do not seem to work well; 3) can you elaborate in details how to do the SEO for a specific niche using real exams (e.g., if you say social bookmarking, can you tell us how to find those sites or even provide a list of sites; if you use blog comments, can you walk thru the process to find good quality blog that accept comments with “do follow” etc
You and FatCow are independent contractors, and nothing in this Agreement will create any partnership, joint venture, agency, franchise, sales representative, or employment relationship between the parties. You will have no authority to make or accept any offers or representations on our behalf. You will not make any statement, whether on your Affiliate Site or otherwise, that contradicts anything in this section.
The Program Operator will not be liable for indirect or accidental damages (loss of revenue, commissions) due to affiliate system sale tracking failures, commission processing system failures, losses of database files or backups thereof, attacks on computing resources, computer viruses, the continued viability of their products, any results of “intents of harm” to the program, or acts of God or Nature. The Program Operator makes no claim that the operation of the websites or the Program Operator network will be error-free nor will the Program Operator be held liable for any interruptions or errors.
Discounts and Coupons. You are not allowed to post any refunds, credits or discounts on the FatCow Products and Services, or other content concerning FatCow without FatCow’s prior written consent in each instance. Affiliates may only use coupons and discounts that are provided exclusively through the Affiliate Program using banners and links. Each Link connecting users of the Affiliate Site to the pertinent area of the FatCow website will in no way alter the look, feel, or functionality of the FatCow website. Any violations of the terms surrounding links, coupons, refunds, credits or discounts shall constitute a material breach of this Agreement, and may result in your termination from the Affiliate Program or the withholding of Commission Fees
Hello Chris, So do you create a blog and do you personally have to buy each item you review. Or do you just create a review that Amazon gives you or is there video that you can use to create some kinda of video? Do you go on and talk about this or not show your face and just do a show your screen and talk about the product. And if you have to buy each product does amazon give you a discount since you are going to be a seller? This is my first time and I’m a total newbie. What do you recommend for created a blog site and etc to host etc to spend the least amount and get running. I have hardly any capital. Thank you for any help and guidance.

So, with that being said, you can see how the top Amazon affiliates make their “big bucks.” They utilize every tool available to them so they can automate their business so they can concentrate on other aspects of their business. That's how Amazon affiliates make huge payouts on Amazon. Being able to maintain consistent visitors that turn into long term buying prospects because you are able to keep the products fresh everyday through automation.
It can be time-consuming to find product images to use when promoting Amazon, the same thing goes for adding links. With EasyAzon I can add images, links, product info boxes and more by the click of a button directly from my own site. Super simple and it saves time and helps maximize earnings. If you monetize with Amazon take a look at EasyAzon here.
Product review sites are another popular vehicle for affiliate marketing strategies. Because these sites are inherently focused on providing information about products in which visitors are likely interested, the affiliate tie-in is pretty straightforward. The author writes about a product, highlighting the features and addressing any concerns, and then includes a link where readers can go to purchase the product.
Additionally, you must either include the following disclaimer adjacent to the pricing or availability information or provide it via a hyperlink, pop-up box, scripted pop-up, or other similar method: "Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on [relevant Amazon Site(s), as applicable] at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product." In the above examples, "Details" and "More info" would provide a method for the end user to read the disclaimer.
Choose products carefully. Don't promote something you wouldn't buy or don't like just to make money. It will backfire and cause you to lose credibility with your website visitors. People are more likely to buy products you personally recommend. If you don't have experience with the product, be sure to check out reviews to see what other people's experience with it is.
Affiliate Program Limits. Each accepted Affiliate Lead will expire according to the information provided on the Program Policies Page. from the date the Affiliate Lead clicked on the Affiliate Link that was made available by you. We will pay you Commission for each new Customer who completes a Customer Transaction after clicking on an Affiliate Lead made available by you, provided that you remain eligible to receive Commission pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.  The start of the Customer’s subscription is determined by the date of the first purchase of the Subscription Service by the Customer and you will receive a Commission payment for that Customer Transaction only, regardless of any additional purchases made by that customer during their Subscription Service. For example, if the initial Customer Transaction is for one user of Sales Hub Professional, and there is a subsequent transaction by that same customer for an additional user of Sales Hub Professional for the same subscription, Affiliate will receive Commission for the initial user purchased only. The Affiliate will not be entitled to receive Commission on any additional purchases of HubSpot Products by that same Customer
Networks are the best source for determining the going commission rate among competitors. Before joining a network, most merchants or program managers sign up with a couple of the larger ones as an affiliate. This gives them access to the network’s database, and they can do a search for the starting commissions being paid out by other businesses in their industry to get a feel for how much they can charge.
Great post , I do read a lot of the Nichehacks articles and this one is so true. At the moment I am in a niche I'm passionate about and yes although I am primarily using Amazon to monetize my site, I will be branching out to use other methods very soon. It frightens me to think the plug can be pulled at any time! I intent to use other affiliate programs as well as Amazon, maybe Google Adsense, I'm not sure yet, some digital products and also to build an email list.

Be transparent and create your story. What did you suffer through? Are you a reluctant leader or are you the hero leading the charge? Ensure you properly relay your story so that you can bridge the emotional bond between people who have no idea about who you are. Why should they listen to you? What "secrets" have you uncovered over the years? What failures did you suffer through or lessons did you learn along your journey?
You are the sole and exclusive owner of the Affiliate Trademarks and have the power to grant to FatCow the license to use such marks in the manner contemplated herein, and such grant will not (i) breach, conflict with, or constitute a default under any agreement or other instrument applicable to you or binding upon your assets or properties, or (ii) infringe upon any trademark, trade name, service mark, copyright, or other proprietary right of any third person or entity.
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